Single mom looking for sex the advocate adult services

single mom looking for sex the advocate adult services

Custody loss rates for parents with mental illness range as high as percent, and a higher proportion of parents with serious mental illnesses lose custody of their children than parents without mental illness. Studies that have investigated this issue report that:. The major reason states take away custody from parents with mental illness is the severity of the illness, and the absence of other competent adults in the home. A research study found that nearly 25 percent of caseworkers had filed reports of suspected child abuse or neglect concerning their clients.

The loss of custody can be traumatic for a parent and can exacerbate their illness, making it more difficult for them to regain custody. If mental illness prevents a parent from protecting their child from harmful situations, the likelihood of losing custody is drastically increased.

All people have the right to bear and raise children without government interference. However, this is not a guaranteed right. Governments may intervene in family life in order to protect children from abuse or neglect, imminent danger or perceived imminent danger.

When parents are not able, either alone or with support, to provide the necessary care and protection for their child, the state may remove the child from the home and provide substitute care. This legislation is the first substantive change in federal child welfare law since the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of , Public Law It requires that state child welfare agencies make "reasonable efforts" to prevent the unnecessary placement of children in foster care and to provide services necessary to reunify children in foster care with their families.

ASFA establishes expedited timelines for determining whether children who enter foster care can be moved into permanent homes promptly—their own familial home, a relative's home, adoptive home, or other planned permanent living arrangement. Focusing on social, employment, or adaptive skills; cognitive-behavioral, pharmaceutical, and other therapies; or transition planning or other services, such interventions generally target the individual with ASD, with most emphasizing a single skill or functional domain.

Although a number of interventions have been attempted, most studies to date have been of poor quality; there is little evidence that these interventions conclusively improve adult outcomes Taylor et al. A different approach emphasizes parents as the ideal targets of intervention. Summarizing the role of parents during the transition and early-adult years, Timmons et al.

This focus on parents as the linchpins for services makes possible expansions of earlier, school-focused interventions into the transition and early adult years. In one such program, the Volunteer Advocacy Program or VAP , parents and other individuals were trained to develop the knowledge and skills needed to advocate effectively for school-aged children with disabilities within special education.

Parents and other individuals attended a week advocacy training program, with some participants attending on-site, and others receiving the training via webcasts to other sites within the same state Burke, In the current study, we adapted the VAP workshop sessions to emphasize the needs of young adults with ASD and to focus on advocating for adult disability services vs. Similar to the original VAP, the Volunteer Advocacy Program-Transition or VAP-T also featured a week workshop series, with each week featuring a specific topic and led by a trained workshop facilitator with guest expert s.

Discussions centered on the nature of each service, eligibility criteria, applying for and becoming eligible for services, and inter-connections among diverse service-delivery programs.

Primary outcomes targeted by the VAP-T program included parental knowledge, skills-comfort, and empowerment. Both knowledge and skills-comfort were also targeted in the original VAP, and have been shown to be sensitive to the intervention Burke et al. Our final outcome involved parental empowerment.

Although not examined in the original VAP study, our sense was that VAP-T parent attendees might show improvements in their empowerment as advocates of adult disability services. Conceptualized as a psychological process that goes beyond coping per se, parental empowerment involves parents actively attempting to change or eliminate stressful events by applying knowledge and skill Guttierrez, Long used to help parents of children with psychiatric conditions e.

We had two primary aims: Finally, in exploratory analyses we examined several potential factors that might influence benefits gained from the VAP-T. These included whether the youth with ASD did or did not also have ID; whether the parent attended a session in the group as opposed to at home; and whether the family participated at the main or at a distance site.

A total of 41 families of adolescents and young adults with ASD participated in this study. Of these, 20 families were randomly assigned to the intervention group and 21 to the wait-list control group. Demographic characteristics are presented in Table 1. For families to be eligible to participate, there were four inclusion criteria. Second, to be eligible the youth must have received a previous medical or educational diagnosis of an ASD, which was confirmed during a clinical evaluation.

In addition, because much of the information presented in the VAP-T was state-specific, families were required to live within the state for which the program was developed.

Fourth, participants needed to be willing to be randomized to either the intervention group i. Once ASD diagnosis was confirmed, families were enrolled in the study and randomized to either the treatment or wait-list control group. A total of families contacted us about participating in the study and were screened. Of these, 92 were deemed potentially eligible, dependent on diagnostic confirmation. From among the 92 families, 20 declined participation after hearing more about the study, 25 could not commit to weekly evening sessions either because they were too busy or had conflicts during that time , and 2 did not respond to attempts to schedule the diagnostic evaluation.

Groups were assigned using a random number generator, stratified by project site and whether the youth had ID in addition to ASD. Similarly, we wanted to ensure that any group differences could not be attributed to different proportions in each group of those who were taking the program in-person at the host site vs. Finally, in the three months between pre-test and post-test, four of the original 45 families were lost to attrition 2 each from the treatment and control groups ; we thus have complete pre-test and post-test data from 20 respondents in the intervention group and 21 in the control group.

This study employed a randomized controlled trial RCT with a waitlist control design. Secondary outcomes will be collected 6 months and 12 months after the intervention. In the spring of , after the month follow-up data collection is completed, control group participants will have the opportunity to participate in the VAP-T program. All participants were recruited from three metropolitan areas in a mid-Southern state. Recruitment took place through a number of venues, including other autism studies and research registries; medical clinics and local medical providers; disability agencies and centers; and school personnel.

Parents also filled out demographic information about themselves, their son or daughter with ASD, and the family overall. Those families assigned to the treatment group participated in the VAP-T program in the fall of Sessions were held for 12 consecutive weeks on a weekday evening. The intervention was delivered in-person at the host site a large academic medical center , and webcast to two distance sites within the same state.

Although participation in-person either at the host site or at one of the two distance sites was encouraged, those who were unable to attend were invited to view the webcast from home or at another location of their choosing in real time. Real-time participation allowed families to ask questions of the speakers and facilitators and to participate in discussions. Those who were unable to attend a session in real time were invited to view the recorded session, available the day after that session took place.

The control group received a list of local disability resources, as well as publically-available toolkits pertaining to the transition to adulthood and employment for people with disabilities. Other than periodic emails about local transition-related seminars or workshops sent to both groups , research staff did not provide other resources to the control group during the intervention sessions, nor throughout the month follow-up period. The VAP-T is a hour advocacy training to educate parents of youth with ASD about the adult service delivery system and to enable parents to advocate for services.

The VAP-T is comprised of didactic instruction, family-sharing activities, case studies, and group discussions. Similar to the VAP, the VAP-T was directed by an experienced group facilitator, in this case a licensed clinical social worker who has been trained in Person-Centered Planning and has over two decades of experience working both individually and in groups with individuals with disabilities and their families.

In most sessions, the workshop facilitator was aided by content experts who presented the specifics of each topic. The VAP-T curriculum reflected multiple domains: Within each domain, there were 1—3 topics. Additionally, for each domain, participants were asked to complete a section of a Letter of Intent i.

By aligning the Letter of Intent with each domain, each participant completed a written document about the services their son or daughter needs per each domain and strategies to obtain such services.

Each participant was also provided a binder of materials, which for each topic included a PowerPoint presentation, required readings, tip sheet s , and activities.

Both the host site where speakers presented in-person and each distance site had a facilitator or team of facilitators who set up the technology and assisted in interactions between sites. Through the use of web-based software Adobe Connect , each distance site was able to communicate with the host site through both spoken and written means.

In this way, each site could develop group cohesion, as well as take part in interactions with the speakers at the host site and with participants at the other two sites.

Prior to implementing the VAP-T, we developed three to six learning objectives to examine treatment fidelity for each session. Feasibility was examined through attendance records for each session, recorded as: The measure consisted of 25 multiple-choice questions asking factual information about adult disability services and the adult disability service system.

This measure was piloted among a group of parents of older sons and daughters with ASD to ensure that floor and ceiling effects were avoided. In this sample, pre-test scores ranged from 5 to 22, post-test scores from 7 to Developed for families of children with emotional disabilities, the FES measures the extent to which parents feel empowered across three dimensions: Item scores are summed to form an overall score, with higher scores indicating greater empowerment. Reliability and validity of this measure have been established in other studies Koren et al.

At baseline, we collected demographic information on parents and families, information on formal service access, and behavioral information about the youth with ASD. These last two measures — IQ and adaptive behavior — were combined to determine whether the youth had ID, using well-established guidelines American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, We also collected information about the number of services that the youth was receiving using questions from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 www.

Treatment fidelity was examined by having study staff rate whether each learning objective of each session was fully met, partially met, or not met. To examine feasibility, we examined how many sessions intervention group participants attended in-person or from home either in real-time or recordings after the session. Analysis of variance and chi-squares were used to test for between-group differences in demographic variables or baseline scores of the parent outcomes i.

We chose the AT approach because this was the first test of a novel intervention. Dependent variables were the post-test scores of parental knowledge, advocacy skills-comfort, and empowerment. For each model, the baseline score of the particular dependent variable was statistically controlled, and group assignment treatment vs. Although we had planned to enter as co-variates any demographic variables that demonstrated significant between-group differences at pre-test, none emerged see Results.

All four families lost to attrition were from the distance sites. Overall, however, we had very low rates of attrition 4 of 45 families, or 8. Taken together and using guidelines from the What Works Clearinghouse , we concluded that attrition was highly unlikely to bias study findings. To determine the proportion of content accessed in the group setting across participants, we divided the number of sessions attended in-person by the number of sessions accessed in any way.

We then used partial correlations, controlling for the number of sessions in which the VAP-T content was accessed by any means and the baseline scores of the respective variables, to determine if accessing a higher proportion of content in the group setting related to higher post-test scores on knowledge, advocacy skills-comfort, or empowerment.

The intervention was determined to have been delivered with reasonable fidelity. For 8 of the 12 sessions, every learning objective was fully met. For 3 sessions, one learning objective was partially met, and the others were fully met.

For one session, two learning objectives were partially met, and one was fully met. The two raters agreed on 8 of the 9 learning objectives In terms of feasibility, we successfully webcast all 12 sessions to both distance sites and had good attendance at the host and distance sites. Acceptability of the sessions was generally good.

Table 1 presents descriptive information and statistical tests for group differences in the demographic variables. Relative to youth in the intervention group, those in the control group had slightly higher mean adaptive behavior scores and seemed somewhat more likely to have a comorbid psychiatric diagnosis; however, neither difference reached statistical significance.

Group means and statistical tests of group differences on baseline measures of parental outcomes. Table 3 shows group means, standard deviations, and tests for group differences in post-test scores of the three outcomes. Examined another way, one could compare the proportion of individuals within each group who showed positive change. After controlling for the total number of sessions accessed by any means and the baseline scores of the respective variables, those intervention group participants who attended more sessions in the group setting vs.

Although estimated means suggested that parents of those with ASD and ID might have benefitted slightly more than those with ASD without ID, none of the group differences by intellectual disability were marginally or statistically significant. The VAP-T also emphasized parental advocacy and was provided at our home site as well as via web technology to two distance sites. This study had two main findings, each of which has important implications for future interventions and clinical practice.

Working with a variety of experts and agencies, we were able to revamp the original VAP curriculum to focus on parents of transition-aged individuals and to recruit content experts who intimately knew about SSI, SSDI, the Medicaid waiver, employment, post-secondary education, and other topics.

Our experienced workshop facilitator along with content experts was able to deliver this intervention as planned, with all topics and sub-topics covered and virtually all learning objectives fully met a few were only partially met.

Finally, our intervention-group participants reported themselves satisfied or highly satisfied with most sessions. Beyond these straightforward findings, however, a few complications also arose. And while the large majority of participants attended most sessions in-person, we needed to add alternatives to live participation at the host and distance sites. Thus, in some cases, participants viewed a session from their own homes, either at the same time as their co-participants or at a later time from the recording of the session.

Although such modifications seemed necessary for attendees to access as many sessions as possible, eliminating the in-person requirement may also have come at a cost. Increasingly as we proceeded with this project, we came to appreciate that many families were isolated from one another, with most knowing few other families who had sons or daughters with ASD at a similar life stage.

As a result, many families valued the group format. In the workshops themselves, our workshop facilitator encouraged such cross-family sharing through activities and discussions; informally as well, several parents habitually arrived at sessions early or stayed later to catch up with other parent participants.

Overall, though, either in a group or by oneself at home, we successfully provided disability-system information and parents felt satisfied. Our second set of findings related to effects of the VAP-T training on parent knowledge, advocacy skill-comfort, and empowerment. We found large or nearly large effect sizes for all outcomes; in addition, extreme amounts of positive change were more often noted among individual participants in the intervention versus control groups. Overall, then, the VAP-T fostered improvements among these parent attendees.

An interesting interplay was observed in our exploratory analyses, between how the intervention was delivered and parental knowledge, skills-comfort, and empowerment. In terms of knowledge, no relation existed between the proportion of sessions accessed in-person and the amount of knowledge parents gained about the adult service system. Such null findings between live and webcast information are consistent with longstanding findings on the use of distance vs.

In each case, distance attendees learned similar amounts of information as did attendees attending in person. In this case, the more sessions that a participant attended with the group, the higher their advocacy skills-comfort and the higher their sense of empowerment. Still, group participation seems important for parents to foster their skills-comfort and empowerment. In considering this intriguing finding, several issues emerge.

First, although our focus centered on parental advocacy, knowledge seems a necessary-but-not-sufficient condition for a thoughtful, informed advocate. Simply stated, one cannot advocate successfully if one does not know enough about the adult disability system, its many types of services, agencies, rules, and criteria. In this sense, our decision seemed justified to allow participants, when necessary, to access sessions by themselves on their own computers.

Such a conclusion also seems borne out from several types of parent interventions.

.

As students leave high school, they may lose their friends, who go on to college or to work lives that are often less available to young adults with disabilities. They lose as well the familiarity and routines of school days and years. Maybe most importantly, students lose the array of mandated academic and supportive services that schools have provided to them for almost 20 years.

Although many youth may struggle during the transition to adulthood, individuals with autism spectrum disorder ASD are at even greater risk. Further, the services needed for individuals with ASD who do versus do not have a co-occurring intellectual disability ID may differ.

For example, individuals with ASD without ID may successfully pursue competitive employment with time-limited or intermittent supports, whereas individuals with ASD and ID may need ongoing, intensive supports in a supported employment setting. Taken together, the transition years may constitute an especially difficult time for young adults with ASD and their families.

In responding to the transition-related needs of these youth, researchers and service systems have embarked on a series of interventions.

Focusing on social, employment, or adaptive skills; cognitive-behavioral, pharmaceutical, and other therapies; or transition planning or other services, such interventions generally target the individual with ASD, with most emphasizing a single skill or functional domain. Although a number of interventions have been attempted, most studies to date have been of poor quality; there is little evidence that these interventions conclusively improve adult outcomes Taylor et al.

A different approach emphasizes parents as the ideal targets of intervention. Summarizing the role of parents during the transition and early-adult years, Timmons et al. This focus on parents as the linchpins for services makes possible expansions of earlier, school-focused interventions into the transition and early adult years. In one such program, the Volunteer Advocacy Program or VAP , parents and other individuals were trained to develop the knowledge and skills needed to advocate effectively for school-aged children with disabilities within special education.

Parents and other individuals attended a week advocacy training program, with some participants attending on-site, and others receiving the training via webcasts to other sites within the same state Burke, In the current study, we adapted the VAP workshop sessions to emphasize the needs of young adults with ASD and to focus on advocating for adult disability services vs.

Similar to the original VAP, the Volunteer Advocacy Program-Transition or VAP-T also featured a week workshop series, with each week featuring a specific topic and led by a trained workshop facilitator with guest expert s. Discussions centered on the nature of each service, eligibility criteria, applying for and becoming eligible for services, and inter-connections among diverse service-delivery programs.

Primary outcomes targeted by the VAP-T program included parental knowledge, skills-comfort, and empowerment. Both knowledge and skills-comfort were also targeted in the original VAP, and have been shown to be sensitive to the intervention Burke et al.

Our final outcome involved parental empowerment. Although not examined in the original VAP study, our sense was that VAP-T parent attendees might show improvements in their empowerment as advocates of adult disability services.

Conceptualized as a psychological process that goes beyond coping per se, parental empowerment involves parents actively attempting to change or eliminate stressful events by applying knowledge and skill Guttierrez, Long used to help parents of children with psychiatric conditions e.

We had two primary aims: Finally, in exploratory analyses we examined several potential factors that might influence benefits gained from the VAP-T. These included whether the youth with ASD did or did not also have ID; whether the parent attended a session in the group as opposed to at home; and whether the family participated at the main or at a distance site.

A total of 41 families of adolescents and young adults with ASD participated in this study. Of these, 20 families were randomly assigned to the intervention group and 21 to the wait-list control group.

Demographic characteristics are presented in Table 1. For families to be eligible to participate, there were four inclusion criteria. Second, to be eligible the youth must have received a previous medical or educational diagnosis of an ASD, which was confirmed during a clinical evaluation.

In addition, because much of the information presented in the VAP-T was state-specific, families were required to live within the state for which the program was developed. Fourth, participants needed to be willing to be randomized to either the intervention group i.

Once ASD diagnosis was confirmed, families were enrolled in the study and randomized to either the treatment or wait-list control group. A total of families contacted us about participating in the study and were screened.

Of these, 92 were deemed potentially eligible, dependent on diagnostic confirmation. From among the 92 families, 20 declined participation after hearing more about the study, 25 could not commit to weekly evening sessions either because they were too busy or had conflicts during that time , and 2 did not respond to attempts to schedule the diagnostic evaluation. Groups were assigned using a random number generator, stratified by project site and whether the youth had ID in addition to ASD.

Similarly, we wanted to ensure that any group differences could not be attributed to different proportions in each group of those who were taking the program in-person at the host site vs. Finally, in the three months between pre-test and post-test, four of the original 45 families were lost to attrition 2 each from the treatment and control groups ; we thus have complete pre-test and post-test data from 20 respondents in the intervention group and 21 in the control group.

This study employed a randomized controlled trial RCT with a waitlist control design. Secondary outcomes will be collected 6 months and 12 months after the intervention. In the spring of , after the month follow-up data collection is completed, control group participants will have the opportunity to participate in the VAP-T program. All participants were recruited from three metropolitan areas in a mid-Southern state. Recruitment took place through a number of venues, including other autism studies and research registries; medical clinics and local medical providers; disability agencies and centers; and school personnel.

Parents also filled out demographic information about themselves, their son or daughter with ASD, and the family overall. Those families assigned to the treatment group participated in the VAP-T program in the fall of Sessions were held for 12 consecutive weeks on a weekday evening. The intervention was delivered in-person at the host site a large academic medical center , and webcast to two distance sites within the same state.

Although participation in-person either at the host site or at one of the two distance sites was encouraged, those who were unable to attend were invited to view the webcast from home or at another location of their choosing in real time. Real-time participation allowed families to ask questions of the speakers and facilitators and to participate in discussions.

Those who were unable to attend a session in real time were invited to view the recorded session, available the day after that session took place. The control group received a list of local disability resources, as well as publically-available toolkits pertaining to the transition to adulthood and employment for people with disabilities. Other than periodic emails about local transition-related seminars or workshops sent to both groups , research staff did not provide other resources to the control group during the intervention sessions, nor throughout the month follow-up period.

The VAP-T is a hour advocacy training to educate parents of youth with ASD about the adult service delivery system and to enable parents to advocate for services. The VAP-T is comprised of didactic instruction, family-sharing activities, case studies, and group discussions. Similar to the VAP, the VAP-T was directed by an experienced group facilitator, in this case a licensed clinical social worker who has been trained in Person-Centered Planning and has over two decades of experience working both individually and in groups with individuals with disabilities and their families.

In most sessions, the workshop facilitator was aided by content experts who presented the specifics of each topic. The VAP-T curriculum reflected multiple domains: Within each domain, there were 1—3 topics.

Additionally, for each domain, participants were asked to complete a section of a Letter of Intent i. By aligning the Letter of Intent with each domain, each participant completed a written document about the services their son or daughter needs per each domain and strategies to obtain such services.

Each participant was also provided a binder of materials, which for each topic included a PowerPoint presentation, required readings, tip sheet s , and activities. Both the host site where speakers presented in-person and each distance site had a facilitator or team of facilitators who set up the technology and assisted in interactions between sites.

Through the use of web-based software Adobe Connect , each distance site was able to communicate with the host site through both spoken and written means. In this way, each site could develop group cohesion, as well as take part in interactions with the speakers at the host site and with participants at the other two sites.

Prior to implementing the VAP-T, we developed three to six learning objectives to examine treatment fidelity for each session. Feasibility was examined through attendance records for each session, recorded as: The measure consisted of 25 multiple-choice questions asking factual information about adult disability services and the adult disability service system. This measure was piloted among a group of parents of older sons and daughters with ASD to ensure that floor and ceiling effects were avoided.

In this sample, pre-test scores ranged from 5 to 22, post-test scores from 7 to Developed for families of children with emotional disabilities, the FES measures the extent to which parents feel empowered across three dimensions: Item scores are summed to form an overall score, with higher scores indicating greater empowerment.

Reliability and validity of this measure have been established in other studies Koren et al. At baseline, we collected demographic information on parents and families, information on formal service access, and behavioral information about the youth with ASD.

These last two measures — IQ and adaptive behavior — were combined to determine whether the youth had ID, using well-established guidelines American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, We also collected information about the number of services that the youth was receiving using questions from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 www.

Treatment fidelity was examined by having study staff rate whether each learning objective of each session was fully met, partially met, or not met. To examine feasibility, we examined how many sessions intervention group participants attended in-person or from home either in real-time or recordings after the session.

Analysis of variance and chi-squares were used to test for between-group differences in demographic variables or baseline scores of the parent outcomes i. We chose the AT approach because this was the first test of a novel intervention.

Dependent variables were the post-test scores of parental knowledge, advocacy skills-comfort, and empowerment. For each model, the baseline score of the particular dependent variable was statistically controlled, and group assignment treatment vs.

Although we had planned to enter as co-variates any demographic variables that demonstrated significant between-group differences at pre-test, none emerged see Results. All four families lost to attrition were from the distance sites. Overall, however, we had very low rates of attrition 4 of 45 families, or 8.

Taken together and using guidelines from the What Works Clearinghouse , we concluded that attrition was highly unlikely to bias study findings. To determine the proportion of content accessed in the group setting across participants, we divided the number of sessions attended in-person by the number of sessions accessed in any way.

We then used partial correlations, controlling for the number of sessions in which the VAP-T content was accessed by any means and the baseline scores of the respective variables, to determine if accessing a higher proportion of content in the group setting related to higher post-test scores on knowledge, advocacy skills-comfort, or empowerment.

The intervention was determined to have been delivered with reasonable fidelity. For 8 of the 12 sessions, every learning objective was fully met. For 3 sessions, one learning objective was partially met, and the others were fully met. For one session, two learning objectives were partially met, and one was fully met. The two raters agreed on 8 of the 9 learning objectives In terms of feasibility, we successfully webcast all 12 sessions to both distance sites and had good attendance at the host and distance sites.

Acceptability of the sessions was generally good. Table 1 presents descriptive information and statistical tests for group differences in the demographic variables.

Relative to youth in the intervention group, those in the control group had slightly higher mean adaptive behavior scores and seemed somewhat more likely to have a comorbid psychiatric diagnosis; however, neither difference reached statistical significance. Group means and statistical tests of group differences on baseline measures of parental outcomes.

Table 3 shows group means, standard deviations, and tests for group differences in post-test scores of the three outcomes. Examined another way, one could compare the proportion of individuals within each group who showed positive change. After controlling for the total number of sessions accessed by any means and the baseline scores of the respective variables, those intervention group participants who attended more sessions in the group setting vs.

Although estimated means suggested that parents of those with ASD and ID might have benefitted slightly more than those with ASD without ID, none of the group differences by intellectual disability were marginally or statistically significant.

The VAP-T also emphasized parental advocacy and was provided at our home site as well as via web technology to two distance sites. This study had two main findings, each of which has important implications for future interventions and clinical practice. Working with a variety of experts and agencies, we were able to revamp the original VAP curriculum to focus on parents of transition-aged individuals and to recruit content experts who intimately knew about SSI, SSDI, the Medicaid waiver, employment, post-secondary education, and other topics.

Our experienced workshop facilitator along with content experts was able to deliver this intervention as planned, with all topics and sub-topics covered and virtually all learning objectives fully met a few were only partially met. Finally, our intervention-group participants reported themselves satisfied or highly satisfied with most sessions. Beyond these straightforward findings, however, a few complications also arose.

And while the large majority of participants attended most sessions in-person, we needed to add alternatives to live participation at the host and distance sites. Thus, in some cases, participants viewed a session from their own homes, either at the same time as their co-participants or at a later time from the recording of the session. Although such modifications seemed necessary for attendees to access as many sessions as possible, eliminating the in-person requirement may also have come at a cost.

Increasingly as we proceeded with this project, we came to appreciate that many families were isolated from one another, with most knowing few other families who had sons or daughters with ASD at a similar life stage. As a result, many families valued the group format. In the workshops themselves, our workshop facilitator encouraged such cross-family sharing through activities and discussions; informally as well, several parents habitually arrived at sessions early or stayed later to catch up with other parent participants.

Overall, though, either in a group or by oneself at home, we successfully provided disability-system information and parents felt satisfied.

Our second set of findings related to effects of the VAP-T training on parent knowledge, advocacy skill-comfort, and empowerment. We found large or nearly large effect sizes for all outcomes; in addition, extreme amounts of positive change were more often noted among individual participants in the intervention versus control groups.

Overall, then, the VAP-T fostered improvements among these parent attendees. An interesting interplay was observed in our exploratory analyses, between how the intervention was delivered and parental knowledge, skills-comfort, and empowerment.

In terms of knowledge, no relation existed between the proportion of sessions accessed in-person and the amount of knowledge parents gained about the adult service system.

Such null findings between live and webcast information are consistent with longstanding findings on the use of distance vs. AHEAD offers numerous training programs, workshops, publications, and conferences to promote this mission.

Department of Education http: These programs emphasize basic skills such as reading, writing, math, English language competency, and problem-solving. The link above takes you to the Adult Education and People with Disabilities webpage of the division, where you can connect with a network of federal and state programs and initiatives for those with disabilities. DO-IT Scholars is especially for college-capable high school students with disabilities.

PEPNet 2 Pepnet 2 pn2 is a federally funded project whose mission is to increase the education, career, and lifetime choices available to individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. A listing of all national parks and facilities, including general information about their accessibility, is available at the link above. However, information on accessibility of park programs, facilities, and services is best acquired directly from the park or area you plan to visit.

In conjunction with its nationwide network of chapters serving people in all 50 states and Puerto Rico, Disabled Sports USA offers such activities as snow skiing, water skiing, bicycling, white water rafting, horseback riding, mountain climbing, sailing, camping, and track and field.

Use the link below to identify chapters in your area. It works to expand opportunities for persons with disabilities to be involved in international educational exchange programs and travel. MIUSA members receive information and referral services in the areas of travel and placement in international work camps and educational exchange programs.

MISUA also conducts international leadership training for persons with disabilities. Many publications are also available. National Center on Accessibility The National Center on Accessibility, which focuses upon making parks, recreation, and tourism accessible to individuals with disabilities, provides information on: They maintain searchable directories of organizations, programs, and facilities that provide opportunities for accessible physical activity; adaptive equipment vendors; conferences and meetings;and references to journal articles, books, videos and more.

Fact sheets on a variety of physical activities for people with disabilities are also available. With the cooperation of authors and publishers who grant permission to use copyrighted works, NLS selects and produces full-length books and magazines in Braille and on recorded disc and cassette.

Reading materials are distributed to a cooperating network of regional and local libraries where they are circulated to eligible borrowers. Reading materials and playback machines are sent to borrowers and returned to libraries by postage-free mail. This includes individuals who are no longer in school but who are using educational books to pursue careers or personal interests.

United States Adaptive Recreation Center The USARC works with schools, hospitals, rehabilitation centers, and park and recreation departments to serve children and adults with all types of cognitive or physical disabilities. A variety of summer and winter recreational opportunities are offered. AbleData Web Site AbleData provides objective information about assistive technology products and rehabilitation equipment.

There are almost 40, product listings in 20 categories. Government Benefits Web site The government now has available a Web site to help people find government benefits they may be eligible to receive.

Its screening instrument is free and confidential. This includes resources for employment, advocacy, benefits and financial assistance, education, technology, and more. The amount of money and services received varies in each state. The program also includes work incentives that make it possible for individuals to work without an immediate loss of benefits.

It serves diverse audiences and offers online courses, professional development opportunities, and a resource library. By no means a comprehensive list of the disability activities, discussions, and resources you can find online, but hopefully, this list will get you started.

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