In addition, transgender street-based sex workers are not uncommon. Male sex workers aiming at a male clientele usually advertise in the gay newspaper Express or in New Zealand Truth until its closure in Manukau City in South Auckland consistently opposed the legislation.
Manukau felt that street prostitution was particularly problematic in its area. Manukau City Council 's portfolio leader for community safety, Councillor Dick Quax , was particularly critical.
In , he said that "involvement of gangs and organised crime in street prostitution has become evident Street prostitution also attracts offensive litter, disorder, drugs, and intimidation",  and, "There are kids going to school with condoms lying on the street and prostitutes still standing around. It's dangerous, not only for the workers themselves, but for the rest of the community.
We're sick of it The community has had enough. It's not fun to come out in the morning and be having to clean up condoms lying in your garden and on the fence. Cleaning up condoms and needles - it's just not fair. This has led to conflicts with the locals, which have attempted to curb this phenomenon, by trying to scare off prostitutes' customers, breaking negotiations between prostitutes and clients, and sending the prostitutes' clients letters, tracking them down through their car registration plates.
A private Bill, the Manukau City Council Control of Street Prostitution Bill , led to hearings before a select committee, but failed to pass its second parliamentary reading on 11 October 46 votes to 73  following a Select Committee Report that stated that, "initiatives supported by the local community, sex workers and their advocates, outreach workers, social agencies, and the police are a more effective and appropriate use of resources than the proposed legislated solution".
This resulted in critics of the legislation to be dissatisfied. Councillor Quax said that the review was very disappointing: Manukau then made a further attempt to regulate prostitution with the Manukau City Council Regulation of Prostitution in Specified Places Bill The future of the Bill was placed in doubt when Manukau City Council ceased to exist in late , being absorbed into the Auckland Council. However, the new Auckland Council endorsed the bill  and in view of the municipal reorganisation Auckland was given till February to present its submission, the Committee hoping to report to parliament in March , enabling a second reading of the bill.
However, in late June , retiring Manurewa New Zealand Labour Party MP George Hawkins conceded that his private members bill had insufficient parliamentary support to pass its second reading, now scheduled for September , and said that the perceived "radical" expansion of the bill to encompass the whole of Auckland City would adversely affect any subsequent passage.
Other objections are local exemptions to national ambit legislation, and criticism from law enforcement and social service agencies that provide front-line health and social services to street sex workers. It was also seen as contravening the Bill of Rights.
Despite such objections, local Papatoetoe businesses hope to invest in more closed circuit television surveillance cameras to deal with what they view as "anti-social" and "public nuisance" behaviour allegedly ancillary to street sex work. Supporters of the sex workers argue that the behaviour in question may be unrelated to their presence, and linked to the early closure of public toilets and widespread alcohol outlets within the adjacent area.
The private member's bill has since been reintroduced to Parliament, with strong criticism from the LGBT community. They argue that the bill will disproportionately affect transgender street sex workers, given that gender identity is not covered within New Zealand's Human Rights Act They also argue that the Manukau and Auckland City Council have contributed to the situation through closure of public toilets and denial of the use of council rental accommodation to sex workers, and denounce what is argued to be vigilante tactics from some anti-sexworker local residents.
They argue that in instances of inappropriate sex worker behaviour, local councils, concerned residents, police, and business interests should rely on the Summary Offences Act Furthermore, the council is stated to have exaggerated the number of street sex workers.
Whether or not this means that there will be a third private members bill to re-criminalize street sex work, despite this second consecutive defeat, is uncertain. However, given New Zealand First's opposition to prostitution law reform, one of their other MPs may do so. For her party, New Zealand First Deputy Leader Tracey Martin spoke in support of the bill's passage during its second parliamentary reading and consequent defeat.
Underage involvement in the sex industry continues to be a controversial issue in New Zealand, both before and after the passage of the PRA in , with conflicting claims of its extent or relationship to the PRA. Child prostitution is illegal. The Prostitution Reform Act reads as follows: Prohibitions on use in prostitution of persons under 18 years No person may cause, assist, facilitate, or encourage a person under 18 years of age to provide commercial sexual services to any person.
No person may receive a payment or other reward that he or she knows, or ought reasonably to know, is derived, directly or indirectly, from commercial sexual services provided by a person under 18 years of age.
No person may contract for commercial sexual services from, or be client of, person under 18 years 1 No person may enter into a contract or other arrangement under which a person under 18 years of age is to provide commercial sexual services to or for that person or another person. Every person who contravenes section 20, section 21, or section 22 commits an offense and is liable on conviction on indictment to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 years. Thus, it is legal for a person under 18 to be a sex worker, but it is illegal for anyone else to profit from them in this capacity, or cause, assist, facilitate, or encourage them to provide commercial sexual services to any person.
It is also illegal for anyone to purchase sex from a person aged under The media are likely to require photographic ID before placing advertisements to ensure they are complying with this law.
The defence of "reasonableness" has been removed, but sex workers appearing under age may be asked by Police to provide proof of age. However, there appears to be no law prohibiting a person under 18 from being a client of a prostitute, thus the legal age for this would presumably be 16, the legal age of consent in New Zealand. Newspapers report on concerns about underage street workers  stating that this is the commonest entry point into the trade for them  and that some of them may be being pimped by gang members.
Reports have cited some community workers who stated that they had found girls "as young as 10 or 11" selling sex, and one mentioned students from a West Auckland high school who "turned tricks" at lunchtime. Convictions have been obtained against operators who did not check ID and hired under age workers. There have been several cases in Christchurch.
In , ECPAT New Zealand and the Stop Demand Foundation agencies which combat the sexual exploitation of children ,commenting on the Ministry of Justice's report "The Nature and Extent of the Sex Industry in New Zealand",  questioned the effectiveness of New Zealand's legislation in relation to underage prostitution; the agencies pointed to a police survey of the New Zealand sex industry which showed that children under the age of 18 years were identified as selling sex, with three-quarters being concentrated in one Police District.
Despite these claims, police have continued to bring prosecutions for underage prostitution against the brothels despite relaxed oversight. The NZ government has criticised the US reports as being based on faulty and biased data sets. For example, it appears that the State Department ignored material in the Prostitution Law Review Committee Report, which indicated there was no evidence of increased underage sex work in the New Zealand sex industry.
It was founded in by, among others, Catherine Healy , and received funding from the Minister of Health in , and subsequently the Department of Health which became the Ministry of Health. The organisation played a major part in the decriminalisation of prostitution. Together with studies by the Crime and Justice Research Centre at Victoria University     provided the Prostitution Law Review Committee with the evidence based facts that it required to reach a conclusion about the effect of the Prostitution Reform Act on sex workers.
In its "Report of the Prostitution Law Review Committee on the Operation of the Prostitution Reform Act " the committee provided further information on many of the cases and background of sex work in New Zealand. The researchers described this process further in a book, titled "Taking the crime out of sex work- New Zealand sex workers' fight for decriminalisation"  It was written by Gillian Abel a senior public health researcher and lecturer at the University of Otago , New Zealand , Lisa Fitzgerald a public health sociologist and social science lecturer in the School of Population Health, University of Queensland , and Catherine Healy a founding member of the New Zealand Prostitutes' Collective.
The book includes the results of interviews with over sex workers, and concludes that the decriminalisation has had positive effects for the prostitutes safety and health.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Since decriminalisation, street prostitution has spiralled out of control, especially in New Zealand's largest city, Auckland. New Zealand Prostitutes' Collective. New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 16 April Retrieved 15 May The Journal of the Polynesian Society. Retrieved 12 March Practical Statutes of New Zealand. Sex Work and Sex Workers in Australia. University of New South Wales Press.
Tracing the emergence of feminist consciousness in nineteenth-century New Zealand". Women's Studies International Forum. Taking the crime out of sex work: New Zealand sex workers' fight for decriminalisation. The Open Society, Winter 77 2: Scoop News Press release. Retrieved 15 March Archived from the original PDF on 19 February New Zealand Ministry of Justice. Retrieved 18 March Retrieved 16 March What really happened in New Zealand after prostitution was decriminalized in ?
Prostitution Research and Education. Retrieved 23 March The opposition's rebuttal remarks". Archived from the original on 22 October National Party press release Press release. Shadow boxing with brothels". Victoria University of Wellington. The impact of the Prostitution Reform Act on the health and safety practices of sex workers.
The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 4 November Retrieved 10 June Archived from the original PDF on 16 June Retrieved 14 August Archived from the original on 4 March Archived from the original on 23 May Manukau welcomes the progress of the street prostitution bill to the Select Committee Sept 9 Archived 29 September at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 20 June Archived from the original on 8 March Archived from the original on 24 July Law Archived 29 December at the Wayback Machine.
Ministry of Justice, New Zealand. Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 22 June Archived from the original on 17 December International Approaches to Decriminalising or Legalising Prostitution. Models of Best Practice. The Prostitution Reform Act ". Archived from the original on 21 July Archived from the original on 22 May Decriminalisation of sex industry positive move Jordan, J Working Girls: Transsexual prostitution in New Zealand: Predominance of persons of Maori extraction, Arch Sex Behav 13 4: Sex, law and social control - the sex industry in New Zealand today.
Early developmental experiences of female sex workers: Services and information utilised by female sex workers for sexual and physical safety. The mental and physical health of female sex workers: A 'segmented' sex industry in New Zealand: Weinberg, Heather Worth and Colin J.
Child Prostitution — New Zealand. Medicine, sexuality and imperialism: British medical discourses surrounding venereal disease in New Zealand and Japan: First reading speech 11 October archived Sue Bradford Green: Where there is evidence of organised criminal activity and associated sexual exploitation of vulnerable people, this will be thoroughly investigated.
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The classified elite escorts BrisbaneNo person may contract for commercial sexual services from, or be client of, person under 18 years 1 No person may enter into a contract or other arrangement under which a person under 18 years of age is to provide commercial sexual services to or for that person or another person. Advertising is banned, with the exception of print media, which is restricted. Transsexual prostitution in New Zealand: Therefore, they are heavily represented within street sex work. Contracts between provider and client were recognised, and providers have the right to refuse services. This evaluation was included inwithin the Act. Archived from the original PDF on 19 February The Australian courts are ignorant of the sophisticated strategies of traffickers, which include using former trafficking victims as recruiters. Brothels vary in size between 3 sex workers on duty to up to approximately The vast majority of New Zealand sex workers are biologically female, but there are also male and transgender workers, particularly in Auckland. Young people under 18 were still classed as offenders after this came into force, until the passage of the Prostitution Reform Act
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