The agency exists to protect national communications systems integrity and to collect and process information about foreign adversaries' secret communications to support national security and foreign policy.
The classified information is disseminated to 16 separate government agencies that make up the U. In October , Attorney General Loretta Lynch signed new guidelines to enable the NSA to provide intercepted communications and raw signals intelligence -- before applying domestic and foreign privacy protections -- to 16 government agencies, including the FBI and CIA.
The National Security Agency works in close conjunction with the Central Security Service, which was established by presidential executive order in to promote full partnership between the NSA and the cryptologic elements of the armed forces.
Although the organization's number of employees -- as well as its budget -- falls into the category of classified information, the NSA lists among its workforce analysts, engineers, physicists, linguists, computer scientists, researchers, customer relations specialists, security officers, data flow experts, managers, and administrative and clerical assistants. It also claims to be the largest employer of mathematicians in the U.
The NSA denies reports claiming that it has an unlimited black budget -- undisclosed even to other government agencies.
NSA surveillance operations, which intensified after the Sept. Bush on October 26, The Patriot Act expanded the government's surveillance powers beyond the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, established in , which provided exceptions to the Fourth Amendment when the search -- or wiretap -- was to gain foreign intelligence.
For example, the Patriot Act authorized law enforcement and the Federal Bureau of Investigation to secretly search personal and business records of U. In , details about some of the NSA's surveillance programs became public when former Booz Allen Hamilton contractor Edward Snowden leaked troves of confidential NSA information, first travelling to Hong Kong to meet with reporters and then seeking asylum from U.
Russia extended his asylum in January until The documents indicated the agency had broadened its domestic surveillance activities to bulk collection of U. Questions of legal authority were raised when Snowden's NSA disclosures revealed the organization collected internet data stored by internet service providers, as well as surveillance metadata on U. The agency's surveillance operations also targeted third parties, such as business owners required to turn over customers' records, and U.
The exposure of the details of the NSA's widespread surveillance programs also embarrassingly revealed that the agency intercepted allied government communications, allegedly tapping mobile phones of world leaders, including German Chancellor Angela Merkel. The unauthorized leaks also provided information on the NSA's Tailored Access Operations program, an elite offensive hacking unit created in that conducts technical surveillance.
According to Snowden's disclosures, in addition to computer networks, TAO infiltrated satellite and fiber optic communications systems, which are the backbones of telecommunications providers and ISPs.
The NSA revelations raised concerns worldwide that U. Provisions of the Patriot Act, including roving wiretaps and bulk metadata collection, expired on June 1, It restored the Patriot Act provisions with modifications and imposed limits on bulk collection of telecommunications metadata. However, the NSA could still access that information through telecommunications companies.
Early interception techniques relied on radio signals, radar and telemetry. Friedman became chief cryptologist at SIS and was tasked with educating a small team of civilians on cryptanalysis so they could compile codes for the U.
In , the New York Times reported that Stuxnet malware, discovered in June after a damaging attack on Windows machines and programmatic logic controllers in Iran's industrial plants, including its nuclear program, had been jointly developed by the U. Neither country has admitted responsibility for the malicious computer worm. A hacker organization dubbed the Equation Group allegedly used two of the zero-day exploits prior to the Stuxnet attack, according to antivirus company Kaspersky Lab, which is based in Moscow and made the claims in In addition to protecting national security through cryptography and cryptanalysis, the NSA has weathered security breaches beyond Snowden that have caused embarrassment for the agency and affected its intelligence-gathering capabilities.
An unidentified NSA contractor removed classified U. The files were allegedly intercepted by Russian hackers. The contractor acknowledged using antivirus software from Kaspersky Lab, a company that, according to some reports, may have ties to the Russian government. In , Israel intelligence officers revealed that they detected NSA materials on Kaspersky networks in Kaspersky officials later admitted that they became aware of unusual files on an unidentified contractor's computer, and they did not immediately report their findings.
In December , the U. They released batches of files on the internet, some of which allegedly contained the IP addresses of computer servers that were compromised by the Equation Group -- hackers reported to have ties to the NSA. The continual dumping of NSA files has exposed zero-day exploits targeting firewalls and routers, Microsoft Windows vulnerabilities, and other cyberweapons. The NSA, according to the ongoing leaks, has been stockpiling vulnerabilities, most notably the Windows EternalBlue exploit used by cybercriminals in the global WannaCry ransomware attacks.
He was indicted by a grand jury in February The case is still pending as prosecutors wrestle with criminal counts and the sheer volume of materials. Security professionals need to fight their natural skepticism and embrace cloud services adoption for the good of the enterprise, Docker's Kubernetes implementation provides enterprises with container orchestration options.
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France chose to regulate prostitution, introducing a Morals Brigade onto the streets of Paris. A major work, Prostitution, Considered in Its Moral, Social, and Sanitary Aspects , was published by William Acton in , which estimated that the County of London had 80, prostitutes and that 1 house in 60 was serving as a brothel.
During this period, prostitution was also very prominent in the Barbary Coast, San Francisco as the population was mainly men, due to the influx from the Gold Rush. The leading theorists of Communism opposed prostitution. Communist governments often attempted to repress the practice immediately after obtaining power, although it always persisted.
In contemporary Communist countries, it remains illegal but is nonetheless common. Originally, prostitution was widely legal in the United States. Prostitution was made illegal in almost all states between and largely due to the influence of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union.
On the other hand, prostitution generated much national revenue in South Korea, hence the military government encouraged prostitution for the U. While this law did not criminalise the act of prostitution in the United Kingdom itself, it prohibited such activities as running a brothel. Soliciting was made illegal by the Street Offences Act Beginning in the late s, many states in the US increased the penalties for prostitution in cases where the prostitute is knowingly HIV-positive.
Penalties for felony prostitution vary, with maximum sentences of typically 10 to 15 years in prison. Sex tourism emerged in the late 20th century as a controversial aspect of Western tourism and globalization.
In the 21st century, Afghans revived a method of prostituting young boys which is referred to as " bacha bazi ". Since the break up of the Soviet Union , thousands of eastern European women end up as prostitutes in China, Western Europe, Israel, and Turkey every year; some enter the profession willingly, but many are tricked, coerced, or kidnapped, and often experience captivity and violence.
India's devadasi girls are forced by their poor families to dedicate themselves to the Hindu goddess Renuka.
The BBC wrote in that devadasis are "sanctified prostitutes". Historically , and currently, church prostitutes exist, and the practice may be legal or illegal, depending on the country, state or province.
Prostitutes' salaries and payments fluctuate according to the economic conditions of their respective countries. Prostitutes who usually have foreign clients, such as business travelers, depend on good foreign economic conditions.
In some countries, there is controversy regarding the laws applicable to sex work. For instance, the legal stance of punishing pimping while keeping sex work legal but "underground" and risky is often denounced as hypocritical; opponents suggest either going the full abolition route and criminalize clients or making sex work a regulated business. Many countries have sex worker advocacy groups which lobby against criminalization and discrimination of prostitutes.
These groups generally oppose Nevada-style regulation and oversight, stating that prostitution should be treated like other professions. Other groups, often with religious backgrounds, focus on offering women a way out of the world of prostitution while not taking a position on the legal question.
Prostitution is a significant issue in feminist thought and activism. Many feminists are opposed to prostitution, which they see as a form of exploitation of women and male dominance over women, and as a practice which is the result of the existing patriarchal societal order.
These feminists argue that prostitution has a very negative effect, both on the prostitutes themselves and on society as a whole, as it reinforces stereotypical views about women, who are seen as sex objects which can be used and abused by men.
Other feminists hold that prostitution can be a valid choice for the women who choose to engage in it; in this view, prostitution must be differentiated from forced prostitution , and feminists should support sex worker activism against abuses by both the sex industry and the legal system. In February , the members of the European Parliament voted in a non-binding resolution, adopted by votes to ; with abstentions , in favor of the 'Swedish Model' of criminalizing the buying, but not the selling of sex.
The position of prostitution and the law varies widely worldwide, reflecting differing opinions on victimhood and exploitation , inequality , gender roles , gender equality , ethics and morality , freedom of choice , historical social norms , and social costs and benefits.
Legal themes tend to address four types of issue: Prostitution may be considered a form of exploitation e. The legal status of prostitution varies from country to country, from being legal and considered a profession to being punishable by death.
In , the UN General Assembly adopted a convention stating that "prostitution and the accompanying evil of the traffic in persons for the purpose of prostitution are incompatible with the dignity and worth of the human person",  requiring all signing parties to punish pimps and brothel owners and operators and to abolish all special treatment or registration of prostitutes.
As of January , the convention was ratified by 95 member nations including France, Spain, Italy, Denmark, and not ratified by another 97 member nations including Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. In countries where prostitution is legal, advertising it may be legal as in the Netherlands or illegal as in India. Covert advertising for prostitution can take a number of forms:.
In the United States, massage parlors serving as a cover for prostitution may advertise "full service", a euphemism for coitus. In Las Vegas , prostitution is often promoted overtly on the Las Vegas Strip by third party workers distributing risque flyers with the pictures and phone numbers of escorts despite the fact that prostitution is illegal in Las Vegas and Clark County , see Prostitution in Nevada.
The way in which prostitutes advertise their presence varies widely. Some remain in apartments which have hints or clues outside such as posters with "model" written on them to lure potential customers inside. Others advertise by putting numbers or location in phoneboxes or in online or newspaper ads.
In more sexually permissive societies, prostitutes can advertise in public view, such as through display windows. In sexually restrictive societies it may occur through word-of-mouth and other means. A difficulty facing migrant prostitutes in many developed countries is the illegal residence status of some of these women.
They face potential deportation, and so do not have recourse to the law. Hence there are brothels that may not adhere to the usual legal standards intended to safeguard public health and the safety of the workers. The immigration status of the persons who sell sexual services is — particularly in Western Europe — a controversial and highly debated political issue. Survival sex is when the prostitute is driven to prostitution by a need for basic necessities such as food or shelter.
This type of prostitution is common among the homeless and in refugee camps. The term is used in the sex trade and by aid workers , although some practitioners do not regard the act as exploitative. Regarding the prostitution of children the laws on prostitution as well as those on sex with a child apply. If prostitution in general is legal there is usually a minimum age requirement for legal prostitution that is higher than the general age of consent see above for some examples.
Although some countries do not single out patronage of child prostitution as a separate crime, the same act is punishable as sex with an underage person. In India, the federal police say that around 1. In Bangladesh, child prostitutes are known to take the drug Oradexon, also known as dexamethasone. This over-the-counter steroid , usually used by farmers to fatten cattle, makes child prostitutes look larger and older.
According to social activists, the steroid can cause diabetes , high blood pressure and is highly addictive. Some adults travel to other countries to have access to sex with children, which is unavailable in their home country. Cambodia has become a notorious destination for sex with children. As the crime usually goes undiscovered, these laws are rarely enforced. Prostitution among the elderly is a phenomenon reported in South Korea where elderly people turn to prostitution to pay their bills.
This problem comes about because the state does not provide enough income for necessities. Clients in Korea tend also to be elderly. Street prostitutes are at higher risk of violent crime than brothel prostitutes and bar prostitutes. In the United States, the homicide rate for female prostitutes was estimated to be per , Prostitution may sometimes be associated with illegal, abusive, and dangerous activities.
One view maintains that this results from prostitution being stigmatized or illegal, or both. Sex trafficking is defined as using coercion or force to transport an unwilling person into prostitution or other sexual exploitation. Government-sponsored research completed in , approximately , people are trafficked across national borders, which does not include millions trafficked within their own countries.
Approximately 80 percent of transnational victims are women and girls and up to 50 percent are minors," estimated the US Department of State in a study, in reference to the number of people estimated to be victims of all forms of human trafficking. Children are sold into the global sex trade every year. Often they are kidnapped or orphaned, and sometimes they are sold by their own families.
In street prostitution, the prostitute solicits customers while waiting at street corners, sometimes called "the track" by pimps and prostitutes alike.
They usually dress in skimpy, provocative clothing, regardless of the weather. Street prostitutes are often called "streetwalkers" while their customers are referred to as "tricks" or "johns. Motels and hotels that accommodate prostitutes commonly rent rooms by the half or full hour. In Russia and other countries of the former USSR , prostitution takes the form of an open-air market. One prostitute stands by a roadside, and directs cars to a so-called "tochka" usually located in alleyways or carparks , where lines of women are paraded for customers in front of their car headlights.
The client selects a prostitute, whom he takes away in his car. Prevalent in the late s, this type of service has been steadily declining in recent years. A "lot lizard" is a commonly encountered special case of street prostitution. Prostitutes will often proposition truckers using a CB radio from a vehicle parked in the non-commercial section of a truck stop parking lot, communicating through codes based on commercial driving slang, then join the driver in his truck. Brothels are establishments specifically dedicated to prostitution, often confined to special red-light districts in big cities.
Other names for brothels include bordello , whorehouse , cathouse , knocking shop , and general houses. Prostitution also occurs in some massage parlours , and in Asian countries in some barber shops where sexual services may be offered as a secondary function of the premises.
Escort services may be distinguished from prostitution or other forms of prostitution in that sexual activities are often not explicitly advertised as necessarily included in these services; rather, payment is often noted as being for an escort's time and companionship only, although there is often an implicit assumption that sexual activities are expected. In escort prostitution, the act takes place at the customer's residence or hotel room referred to as out-call , or at the escort's residence or in a hotel room rented for the occasion by the escort called in-call.
The prostitute may be independent or working under the auspices of an escort agency. Services may be advertised over the Internet, in regional publications, or in local telephone listings. Use of the Internet by prostitutes and customers is common. Adult contact sites, chats and on-line communities are also used. This, in turn, has brought increased scrutiny from law enforcement, public officials, and activist groups toward online prostitution.
In , Craigslist came under fire for its role in facilitating online prostitution, and was sued by some 40 US state attorneys general, local prosecutors, and law enforcement officials. Reviews of the services of individual prostitutes can often be found at various escort review boards worldwide. These online forums are used to trade information between potential clients, and also by prostitutes to advertise the various services available.
Sex workers, in turn, often use online forums of their own to exchange information on clients, particularly to warn others about dangerous clients.
Sex tourism is travel for sexual intercourse with prostitutes or to engage in other sexual activity. The World Tourism Organization , a specialized agency of the United Nations defines sex tourism as "trips organized from within the tourism sector, or from outside this sector but using its structures and networks, with the primary purpose of effecting a commercial sexual relationship by the tourist with residents at the destination".
Often the term "sex tourism" is mistakenly interchanged with the term " child sex tourism ". Child sex tourism CST is defined as a travel to a foreign country for the purpose of engaging in commercially facilitated child sexual abuse. Virtual sex , that is, sexual acts conveyed by messages rather than physically, is also the subject of commercial transactions.
Commercial phone sex services have been available for decades. The advent of the Internet has made other forms of virtual sex available for money, including computer-mediated cybersex , in which sexual services are provided in text form by way of chat rooms or instant messaging , or audiovisually through a webcam see camgirl.
According to the paper "Estimating the prevalence and career longevity of prostitute women" Potterat et al. The length of these prostitutes' working careers was estimated at a mean of 5 years. According to a report by Fondation Scelles there are between 40 and 42 million prostitutes in the world. In , it was estimated that in Amsterdam , one woman in 35 was working as a prostitute, compared to one in in London.
In Australia, a survey conducted in the early s showed that Reports disagree on whether prostitution levels are growing or declining in developed countries. Some studies indicate that the percentage of men engaging in commercial sex in the United States has declined significantly in recent decades: As Norma Ramos, Executive Director of the Coalition Against Trafficking in Women says "The more the commercial sex industry normalizes this behavior, the more of this behavior you get".
Prostitutes have long plied their trades to the military in many cultures. For example, the British naval port of Portsmouth had a flourishing local sex industry in the 19th century, and until the early s there were large red-light districts near American military bases in the Philippines. The village of Vadia , India is known locally as the village of prostitutes , where unmarried women are involved in prostitution. Mass weddings for children of prostitutes in the village are held to protect them from being pushed into prostitution.
In some places, prostitution may be associated with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases STDs. Lack of condom use among prostitutes and their clients has been cited as a factor in the spread of HIV in Asia: Some think that the first two measures are counter-productive.
Banning prostitution tends to drive it underground, making safe sex promotion, treatment and monitoring more difficult. Registering prostitutes makes the state complicit in prostitution and does not address the health risks of unregistered prostitutes. Both of the last two measures can be viewed as harm reduction policies.
As an example, Thailand's condom program has been largely responsible for the country's progress against the HIV epidemic. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the British television movie, see Strumpet film. For the French film, see The Oldest Profession. For the origin of the phrase "oldest profession", see Oldest profession phrase.
For other uses, see Prostitute disambiguation , Whore disambiguation , and Harlot disambiguation. Femmes de Maison , Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec , c. For those who monger, see Monger disambiguation. Feminist views on prostitution. Decriminalization - No criminal penalties for prostitution. Legalization -prostitution legal and regulated. Abolitionism - prostitution is legal, but organized activities such as brothels and pimping are illegal; prostitution is not regulated.
Neo-abolitionism illegal to buy sex and for 3rd party involvement, legal to sell sex. Prohibitionism - prostitution illegal. Legality varies with local laws.
Prostitution law and Prostitution by country. Brothel and Red-light district. Call girl and Escort agency. Sex tourism and Child sex tourism. Retrieved 19 September Retrieved 19 March The prostitution of women and girls. Is prostitution really the world's oldest profession? Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 22 May Retrieved 14 December Law and Economic Growth — Page 68, J. Retrieved 26 June Archived from the original on 21 May Retrieved 22 December Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 23 May Archived from the original on 23 March Retrieved 14 March Female Dishonor and Male Unworthiness".
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