Milfs nsa urban dictionary Melbourne

milfs nsa urban dictionary Melbourne

MOO, or Muir, the mouth. MULL, to spoil, or bungle. PAL, a partner, or relation. RIG, a frolic, or " spree. RUM, a good man, or thing. SLANG, low, vulgar, unauthorised language. Here, then, we have the remarkable feet of several words of pure Gipsy and Asiatic origin going the round of Europe, passing into this country before the Reformation, and coming down to ns through numerous generations purely in the mouths of the people.

They have seldom been written or used in books, and simply as vulgarisms have they reached our time. Our standard dictionaries give, of course, none but conjectural etymologies. It is not in the old dictionaries, although extensively used in fEuniliar or popular language for the last two centuries ; in fact, the very word that Swift, Butler, UEstrange, and Arbuthnot would pick out at once as a telling and most serviceable term. It is, as we have seen, from the Gipsy ; and here I must state that it was Boucher who first drew attention to the fact, although in his remarks on the dusky tongue he has made a ridiculous mistake by concluding it to be identical with its ofiEspring, Cant.

Other parallel instances, with but slight variations from the old Gipsy meanings, could be mentioned; but suffident examples have been adduced to shew that Marsden, the great Oriental scholar in the last centuiy, when he declared before the Society of Anti- quaries that the Cant of English thieves and beggars had nothing to do with the language spoken by the despised Gipsies, was in error.

Had the Gipsy tongue been analysed and committed to writing three centuries ago, there is every probability that many scores of words now in common use could be at once traced to its source.

Instances continually occur now-a-days of street vulgar- isms ascending to the drawing-rooms of respectable society.

Why, then, may not the Gipsy-vagabond alliance three centuries ago have contributed its quota of common words to popular speech? As George Borrow, in his Account of the Gipsies in Spain, eloquently concludes his second volume, speaking of the connexion of the Gipsies with Europeans: On the Continent they received better attention at the hands of learned men. Grellman, a learned German, was their principal historian, and to him we are almost entirely indebted for the little we know of their languagct The first European settlement of the Gipsies was in the provinces ad- joining the Danube, Moldau and Theiss, where M.

GiPST, then, started, and partially merged into Cant; and the old story told by Harrison and others, that the first inventor of canting was hanged for his pains, would seem to be a fable, for jargon as it is, it was, doubtless, of gradual formation, like all other languages or systems of speech. The Gipsies at the pres- ent day all know the old Cant words, as well as their own tongue, — or rather what remains of it. Other instances could be pointed out, but they will be observed in the Dictionary.

Several words are entirely obsolete. As before mentioned, it was the work of one Thomas Harman, a gentleman who lived in the days of Queen Elizabeth. Some mentioned anywhere as a respectable tenn befcure ? If not it had a vulgar or Gant introduction into this countiy. A tinker's budget is from the same source. All these statements are equally incorrect, for the first attempt was made more than a century before the latter work was issued.

The quaint spelling and old-fashioned phrase- ology are preserved, and the reader will quickly detect many vulgar street words, old acquaintances, dressed in antique garb, j: BUFE, [buffer, a man,] a dogge. Head professed to have lived with the Gipsies, but in reality filched his words from Docker and Brome. CHETEy [see what has been previously said about this word.

COFE, [cove,] a person. DELL, a yonge wench. PL AGO, a groat. OTOEB, [jigger,] a dore. LAP, butter, mylke, or whey. Oogalniceano's Eaaai tur lea Cigcnns de la Moldo-Valachie. LTCKE, [lick,] to beate. LTP, to lie down. MAKE, [mag,] a halfpenny. They are mostly Welshmen, Harman says. ROME, goode, [now curious, noted, or remarkable in any way.

Rvm is the modem orthography. SLA TE, a sheete or shetes. If he say he was, he will know of whom, and his name yt stalled him. Then dooth this upright man call for a gage of bowse, which is a quarte potte of drink, and powres the same vpon his peld pate, adding these words, — I, O.

Hasman was the first author who specially wrote against English vagabonds, and for his trouble his name became synonymous with a pair of stocks, or a policeman of the olden time. Many of these were soon picked up and adopted by vagabonds and tramps in their Cant language.

The Anglo- Norman and the Anglo-Saxon, the Scotch, the French, the Italian, and even the classic languages of ancient Italy and Greece, have contributed to its list of words, besides the various provincial dialects of England. Booze, or bottse, I am reminded by a friendly corre- spondent, comes from the Dutch buybek. Domine, a parson, is from the Spanish. Donna and feeles, a woman and children, is from the Latin; and DON, a clever fellow, has been filched from the Lingua Franca, or bastard Italian, although it sounds like an odd mixture of Spanish and French ; whilst dudds, the Tulgar term for clothes, may have been pilfered either from the Gkielic or the Dutch.

So are gent, silver, from the French Argent; and vial, a country town, also from the French. Hobbid-hobn, a fool, is believed to be from the Erse ; and oloak, a man, from the Scotch. As stated before, the Dictionary will supply numerous other instances.

The Celtic languages have contributed many Cant and vulgar words to our popular vocabulary. These have come to us through the Qaelic or Irish languages, so closely allied in their material as to be merely dialects of a primitive common tongue.

This element may be from the Celtic population, which, from its ancient position as slaves or servants to the Anglo-Saxon conquerors, has contributed so largely to the lowest class of our population, and therefore to our Slang, provincial, or colloquial words ; or it may be an importation from Irish immigrants, who have undoubtedly contributed very largely to our criminal population.

There is one source, however, of secret street terms, which in the first edition of this work was entirely overlooked, — indeed, it was unknown to the editor until pointed out by a friendly correspondent; — the Lingvo, Franca, or bastard Italian, spoken at Qenoa, Trieste, Malta, Constantinople, Smyrna, Alexandria, and all Mediterranean seaport towns.

The ingredients of this imported Cant are many. Its foundation is Italian, with a mix- ture of modem Qreek, German, from the Austrian ports, Spanish,. It would occupy too much space here to give a list of these words.

They are all noted in the Dictionary. Speaking of the learned tongues, I may mention that, precarious and abandoned as the vagabond's existence is, many persons of classical or refined education have from time to time joined the ranks,— occasionally from inclination, as in the popular instance of Bamfylde Moore Carew, but generally through indiscretion and loss of character.

In the early part of the last century, when highwaymen were by all accounts so plentiful, a great many new words were added to the canting vocabulary, whilst several old terms fell into disuse. Cant, for instance, as applied to thieves' talk, was supplanted by the word flash.

In the North of England, the Cant employed by tramps and thieves is known as ''the gammy. In the large towns of Ireland and Scotland this secret language is also spoken.

Shakspeare, or, as the French say, " the divine William," also used many words which are now counted as dreadfully vulgar. A London costermonger, or inhabitant of the streets, instead of saying, "I'll make him yield," or "give in," in a fight or contest, would say, "I'll make him buckle under.

The cant word prig, from the Saxon, priccan, to filch, is also Shakspearian ; so indeed is PIECB, a contemptuous term for a yonng woman. Shakspeare was not the only vulgar dramatist of his time. This is called Marrow- skyingy or Medical Greeks from its use by medical students at the hospitals. The subject was not long since brought under the attention of the Government by Mr Kawlinson. Tolence which encourages and perpetuates vagabondism. Every door or passage is pregnant with instruction as to the error com- mitted by the patron of beggars; as the beggar-marks shew that a system of freemasonry is followed, by which a beggar knows whether it will be worth his while to call into a passage or knock at a door.

Let any one examine the entrances to the passages in any town, and there he wiU find chalk marks, imintelligible to him, but significant enough to beggars. If a thousand towns are examined, the same marks will be found at every passage entrance. The passage mark is a cypher with a twisted tail: In some cases there is a cross on the brick work, in others a cypher: Every person may for himself test the accuracy of these state- ments by the examination of the brick-work near his own door- way — thus demonstrating that mendicity is a regular trade, carried out upon a system calculated to save time, and realise the largest profits.

One tramp thus described the method of woBEiNGt a small town. The English practice of marking everything, and scratching names on public property, extends kself to the tribe of vagabonds. The names of the good houses are not set down in the paper fur fear of the police.

Should there be no map, in most lodging-houses there is an old man who is guide to every " walk" in the vicinity, and who can tell on every round each house that is "good for a cold tatur.

STOP, — If you have what they want, they will buy. Where did these signs come from, and when were they first used? And strange it would be if some modem Belzoni, or Champollion, discovered in these beggars' marks fragments of ancient Egyptian or Hindoo hiero- glyphical writing!

But this, of course, is a simple vagary of the imagination. That the Gipsies were in the habit of leaving memorials of the road they had taken, and the successes that had befiEdlen them, there can be no doubt. I cannot dose this subject without drawing attention to the extraordinary fact, that actually on the threshold of the gibbet the sign of the vagabond is to be met with!

In a popular constable's Guide, giving the practice of justices in petty sessions, I have recently met with the fallowing inter- esting paragraph, corroborating what has just been said on the hieroglyphics used by vagabonds: In the night time a olkft btiok is placed in the fence at the cross roads, with an arm pointing down the road their com- rades have taken.

The marks are always placed on the left-hand aide, so that the stragglers can easily and readily find them. Slang is the language of street humour, of fast, high, and low life.

Cant, as was stated in the chapter upon that subject, is the vulgar language of secrecy. They are both universal and ancient, and appear to have been the peculiar concomitants of gay, vulgar, or worthless persons in every part of the world at every period of time. Slang is as old as speech and the congregating together of people in cities. It is the result of crowding, and excitement, and artificial life.

Even to the Classics it was not unknown, as witness the pages of Aristophanes and Plautus, Terence and Athenseus. Martial, the epigrammatist, is full of Slang. Old English Slang was coarser, and depended more upon downright vulgarity than our modem Slang. It was a jesting speech, or humorous indulgence for the thoughtless moment, or the drunken hour, and it acted as a vent-peg for a fit of temper or irritability j but it did not interlard and permeate every de- scription of conversation as now.

It was confined to nicknames and improper subjects, and encroached but to a very small extent upon the domain of authorised speecL Indeed, it was exceed- ingly limited when compared with the vast territory of Slang in such general favour and complete circulation at the present day. Still, although not an alarming encumbrance, as in our time. Slang certainly did exist in this country centuries ago, as we may see if we look down the page of any respectable History of England.

Cromwell was feuniliarly called old noll, — just the same as Bonaparte was termed boney, and Wellington conkby, or NOSEY, only a few years ago. His Legislature, too, was spoken of in a high-flavoured way as the barebones, or rump Parliar ment, and his followers were nicknamed roundheads, and the peculiar religious sects of his protectorate were styled puritans and QUAKERS.

Here is a field of inquiry for the Philological Society, indeed I may say a territory, for there are thirty thousand of these partisan tracta Later still, in the court of Charles IL, the naughty ladies and the gay lords, with Rochester at their head, talked Slang ; and very naughty Slang it was too!

One half of the coarse wit in Butler s Hudibras lurks in the vulgar words and phrases which he was so fond of employing. They were more homely and forcible than the mild and elegant sentences of Cowley, and the people, therefore, hurrahed them, and pronounced Butler one of themselves,— or, as we should say, in a joyful moment, " a jolly good fellow. Burly Grose men- tions Henley, with the remark that we owe a great many Slang phrases to him.

The worthy doctor, in order to annihilate or, as we should say, with a fitting respect to the subject under consideration, smash an opponent, thought proper on an occasion to use the word CABBAGE, not in the ancient and esculentary sense of a flatulent vegetable of the kitchen garden, but in the at once Slang sense of purloining or cribbing.

Another Slang term, oull, to cheat, or delude, sometimes varied to qully, is stated to be connected with the Dean of St Patrick's. The writers of the comedies and farces in those days must have lived in the streets, and written their plays in the public-houses, so filled are they with vulgarisms and unauthorised words. The popular phrases, " I owe you one," " That 's one for his nob,'' and " Keep moving, dad," arose in this way.

The veritable Quaker, the "real Simon Pure," recommended by Aminadab Holdfast, of Bristol, as a fit sojourner with Obadiah Prim, arrives at last, to the discomfiture of the Colonel, who, to maintain his position and gain time, con- cocts a letter in which the real Quaker is spoken of as a house- breaker who had travelled in the "leather conveniency" from Bristol, and adopted the garb and name of the western Quaker in order tor pass off as the " real simon pure," but only for the purpose of robbing the house and cutting the throat of the per- plexed Obadiah.

The scene in which the two Simon Pures, the real and the counterfeit, meet, is one of the best in the comedy. Slang in those days was generally termed flash language.

I have searched the venerable magazine in vain for this Slang glossary. X This is incorrect See under Fuvos in the Dictionary. Theatre, and was, without exception, the most wonderful instance of a continuous theatrical btjn in ancient or modem times.

This, also, was brimful of Slang. But before I proceed further into the region of Slang, it will be well to say something on the etymology of the word. The word Slang is only mentioned by two lexicographers — Webster and Ogilvie.

The origin of the word has often been asked for in lite- rary journals and books, but only one man, as far as I can learn, has ever hazarded an etymology — Jonathan Bee, the vulgar chronicler of the prize-ring.

How far he succeeded in this latter particular, his ridiculous etymology of Slang will shew. It occurs in his Classical Dictionary of the YuLgar TongTie, of , with the signification that it im- plies " Cant or vulgar language.

Hucksters and beggars on tramp, or at fairs and races, associate and frequently join in any rough enterprise with the Gipsies. Any sadden excitement, peculiar drcnmstance, or popular lite- rary production, is quite sufficient to originate and set agoing a score of Slang words. There is scarcely a condition or calling in life that does not possess its own peculiar Slang. Every workshop, warehouse, factory, and mill throughout the country has its Slang, and so have the public schools of Eton, Harrow, and Westminster, and the great Universities of Oxford and Cambridge.

Sea Slang constitutes the principal charm of a sailor's " yarn;" and our soldiers and officers have each their peculiar nicknames and terms for things and subjects proper and improper. A writer in Household Words No. Let any person for a short time narrowly examine the conversation of their dearest and nearest friends, ay, censor-like, even slice and ana- lyse their own supposed correct talk, and they shall be amazed at the numerous unauthorised, and what we can only call vulgar, words they continually employ.

Look at those simple and useful verbs, doy ciUf gOy and tahcy and see how they are hampered and overloaded, and then let us ask ourselves how is it possible for a French or German gentleman, be he ever so well educated, to avoid con- tinually blundering and floundering amongst our little words when trying to make himself understood in an ordinary conver- sation? He may have studied our language the required time, and have gone through the usual amount of "grinding," and practised the common allotment of patience, but all to no pur- pose as far as accuracy is concerned.

I am aware that most new words are generally regarded as Slang, although afterwards they may become useful and respectable additions to our standard dictionaries. Jabbeb and hoax were Slang and Cant terms in Swift's time ; so indeed were mob and sham.

Nothing pleases an ignorant person so much as a high-sounding term " full of fury. In the United States the vulgar-genteel even excel the poor " stuck-up" Cockneys in their formation of a native fieishionable language. Vul- gar words representing action and brisk movement often owe their origin to sound.

Mispronunciation, too, is another great source of vulgar or Slang words — ramshackle, shackly, kary- ONE for neither or neither one, ottomy or atomy for anatomy, BENCH for rinse, are specimens.

The commonalty dislike fire- quently-occurring words difficult of pronunciation, and so we have the street abridgments of bimeby for by and by, gaze for because, gin for given, hankebcheb for handkerchief bumatiz for rheumatism, backy for tobacco, and many others, not perhaps Slang, but certainly all vulgarisms. Archbishop Whately, in his interesting Remains of Bishop Copleston, has inserted a leaf from the Bishop's note-book on the popular corruption of names, menr tioning among others kickshaws, as from the French, qudques choses; beefeateb, the lubberly guardian of royalty in a pro- cession, and the supposed devourer of enormous beefsteaks, as but a vulgar pronunciation of the French, bufetier ; and oeobge and CANNON, the sign of a public-house, as nothing but a corruption although so soon!

English officers, civilians, and their families, who have resided long in India, have contributed many terms from the Hindostanee to our language.

Jungle, as a term for a forest or wilderness, is now an English phrase ; a few years past, however, it was merely the Hindostanee junkul. The extension of trade in China, and the English settlement at Hong Kong, have introduced among us several examples of Canton Jargon, that exceedingly curious Anglo-Chinese dialect spoken in the seaports of the Celestial Empire.

While these words have been carried as it were into the families of the upper and middle classes, persons in a hum- bler rank of life, through the sailors, soldiers, Lascar and Chinese beggars that haunt the metropolis, have also adopted many Anglo-Indian and Anglo-Chinese phrases.

As this Dictionary would have been incomplete without them, they are all carefully recorded in its columns. Concerning the Slang of the fashion- able world, a writer in Household Words curiously, but not alto- gether truthfully, remarks, that it is mostly imported from France; and that an unmeaning gibberish of Gallicisms runs through English fashionable conversation, and fashionable novels, and accounts of fashionable parties in the fashionable newspapers.

Tet, ludicrously enough, immediately the fashionable magnates of England seize on any French idiom, the French themselves not only universally abandon it to us, but positively repudiate it altogether from their idiomatic vocabulary.

If you were to tell a well-bred Frenchman that such and such an aristocratic marriage was on the tapis, he would stare with astonishment, and look down on the carpet in the startled endeavour to find a mar- riage in so unusual a place. Comer and Chelsea Bun House. Which is the proper way to pronounce the names of great people, and what the correct authority? The mongrel formation is exceedingly amusing to a polite Parisian, t Savea-vous cela? The pronunciation of proper names has long been an anomaly in the conversation of the upper classes of this country.

A costermonger is ignorant of such a place as Birmingham, but understands you ixk a moment if you talk of Brummagem. Why do not Pall Mall join with the costermongers in this pronunciation? It is the ancient one. The Oxonian Antippodett by L B. I have often heard the cabmen on the ''ranks'' in Piccadilly remark of the late Chancellor of the Exchequer, when he has been going from his residence at Grosvenor Gkte to Derby House in St James's Square, '' Hollo, there!

The term comes from America. A job, in political phraseology, is a government office or contract obtained by secret influence or favouritism. The term bat, too, in allusion to rats deserting vessels about to sink, has long been employed towards those turncoat politicians who change their party for interest. Who that occasionally passes near the Houses of Parliament has not often noticed stout or careful M.

Inconvenient friends, or elderly imd lectur- ing relatives, are pronounced dbeadful bobes. Four-wheeled cabs are called boundebs ; and a member of the Four-in-hand Club, driving to Epsom on the Derby Day, would, using fashion- able phraseology, speak of it as tooling his dbag down to the DEBBY. A vehicle, if not a dbao or dwag is a tbap, or a case j and if the tubn out happens to be in other than a trim condi- tion, it is pronoimced at once as not down the boad. Your City swell would say it is not up to the mabk ; whilst the costermonger would call it weby dickey.

In the army a barrack or military station is known as a lobsteb-box ; to " cram " for an examination is to mttg-up ; to reject from the examination is to spin ; and that part of the barrack occupied by subalterns is frequently spoken of as the booejsby. Horace WiJpole quotes a party nickname of Pebruary , as a Slang word ol the day: The military phrase, " to send a man to covENTRy," or permit no person to speak to him, although an ancient saying, must still be considered Slang.

The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and the great public schools, are the hotbeds of fashionable Slang. Growing boys and high-spirited young fellows detest restraint of all kinds, and prefer making a dash at life in a Slang phraseology of their own, to all the set forms and syntactical rules of Alma Mater, Many of the most expressive words in a common chit-chat, or free-and-easy conversation, are old university vulgarisms.

Cut, in the sense of dropping an acquaintance, was originally a Cam- bridge form of speech ; and hoax, to deceive or ridicule, we are informed by Grose, was many years since an Oxford term.

The Slang words in use at Oxford and Cam- bridge would alone fill a volume. Charles Simeon; sloggebs, at Cambridge, refers to the second division of race boats, known at Oxford as tobpids ; spobt is to shew or exhibit ; tbotteb is the jocose term for a tailor's man who goes round for orders ; and tufts are wealthy students who dine with the DONS, and are distinguished by golden tufts, or tassels, in their caps.

For numerous other examples of college Slang the reader is referred to the Dictionary. ReligioiiB Slang, strange as the compound may appear, exists with other descriptions of vidgar speech at the present day. As stated in his Essay, the practice appears to confine itself maialy to the exaggerated forms of the High and Low Church — the Tractarians and the " Eecordites. We hear that Mr A. Again, the word geacious is invested with a meaning as extensive as that attached by young ladies to nice.

It is applied to every person, book, or place, not impregnated with Recordite principles We once were witnesses of a ludicrous misunderstanding result- ing from this phraseology. The conclusion of one of these singular evening parties is generally marked by an "exposUion" — an unseasonable sermon of nearly one hour's duration, circumscribed by no text, and delivered firom the table. Already have these terms become so familiar that they are short- ened, in ordinary conversation, to the dry and the slow.

I have observed that many young preachers strive hard to acquire this peculiar pronuncia- tion, in imitation of the older ministers. These vagaries of speech will, perhaps, by an apologist, be termed " pulpit peculiarities," and the writer dared to inters meddle with a subject that is or should be removed from his criticisms.

The terms used by the mob towards the Church, however illiberal and satirically vulgar, are within his province in such, an inquiiy as the present. His professiou is termed the cloth, and his practice tub-thumping. His chapel, too, is spoken of as a schism shop. A Eoman Catholic, I may remark, is coarsely named a bbiseet-beateb.

Particular as lawyers generally are about the meaning of words, they have not prevented an unauthorised phraseology from arising, which we may term Legal Slang. So forcibly did this truth impress a late writer, that he wrote in a popular journal, " You may hear Slang every day in term from barristers in their robes, at every mess-table, at every bar-mess, at every college commons, and in every club dining-room.

Lawyers, firom their connexion with the police courts, and transactions with persons in every grade of flbciety, have ample opportunities for acquiring street Slang, which, in cross-questioning and wrangling, they frequently avail themselves of. In the English newspapers the same thing is observable, and certain of them contain more of the class denominated Slang wordB than our own.

A short time since 4th May he gave an original etymology of the schoolboy-ism slog. And it was not long ago that he amused his readers with two columns on Slang and Sanscrit: Bosh, remarks Punch, after speaking of it as belonging to the stock of words pilfered from the Turks, " is one whose innate force and beauty the slangographer is reluctantly compelled to admit It is the only word which seems a proper appellation for a great deal which we are obliged to hear and to read every day of our life.

The universality of Slang, I may here remark, is proved by its continual use in the pages of Punch. The Athenoeunif the most learned and censor-like of all the " weeklies," often indulges in a Slang word, when force of expres- sion or a little humour is desired, or when the writer wishes to say something which is better said in Slang, or so-called vulgar speech, than in the authorised language of Dr Johnson or Lindley Murray.

It was but the other day that a writer in its pages employed an old and favourite word, used always when we were highly pleased with any article at school — stunning. Among the words and phrases which may be included under the head of Literary Slang are, Balaam, matter kept constantly in type about monstrous productions of nature, to fill up spaces in newspapers ; balaam-box, the term given in Blackwood to the repository for rejected articles ; and SLATE, to pelt with abuse, or cut up in a review.

A man who is occasionally hired at a trifling remuneration to come upon the stage as one of a crowd, or when a number of actors are wanted to give effect, is named a sup, — an abbreviation of " supernumerary.

A ben is a benefit: A SADDLE is the additional charge made by a manager to an actor or actress upon their benefit night To mug up is to paint one's face, or arrange the person to represent a particular character ; to coepse, or to stick, is to balk, or put the other actors out in their parts by forgetting yours.

To stab it is to perform as the centre of attrac- tion, with none but subordinates and indifferent actors in the same performance. A bear is a speculator on the Exchange ; and a bctll, although of another order, follows a like professioa There is something very humor- ous and applicable in the Slang term lame dctce, a defaulter in stock-jobbing speculations. Breaking shins, in City Slang, is borrowing money ; a rotten or unsound scheme is spoken of as fishy ; " rigging the market " means plajdng tricks with it ; and stag was a conmion term during the railway mania for a speculator without capital, a seller of " scrip " in " Diddlesex Junction" and other equally safe lines.

But before I proceed further in a sketch of the different kinds of Slang, I cannot do better than speak here of the extraordinary number of Cant and Slang terms in use to represent money — from farthings to bank-notes the value of fortunes. Flyiko the kite, or obtaining money on bills and promissory-notes, is closely connected with the allegorical expression of baising the wind, which is a well-known phrase for procuring money by immediate sale, pledging, or by a forced loan. To begin with that extremely humble coin, a farthing: Sevenpence being an uncommon amount has only one Slang eynonyme, setteb.

The same remark applies to eightpence and ninepence, the former being only represented by otteb, and the latter by the Cant phrase nobba-saltee. Guineas are nearly obsolete, yet the terms neds, and half neds, are still in use. Bank-notes are flimsies, long-tailed ones, or soft. A finuf is a five-pound note. One hundred pounds, or any other " round sum,'' quietly handed over as payment for services perfonned, is callously termed "a cool hundred.

The antiquity of many of these Slang names is remarkable. The reader, too, will have remarked the frequency of animals' names as Slang terms for money.

They are identical with the very name of money among the early Bomans, which was pecunia, from pecm, a flocL The collections of coin-dealers amply shew that the figure of a hog was anciently placed on a small silver coin ; and that that of a bull decorated larger ones of the same metkL These coins were frequently deeply crossed on the reverse ; this was for the convenience of easily breaking them into two or more pieces, should the bargain for which they were employed require it, and the parties making it had no smaller change handy to complete the transaction.

If he takes army contracts, it is sank work ; if he is a slop tailor, he is a springer up, and his garments are blown together. Per- quisites with him are spiffs, and remnants of cloth peaking, or cabbage. The per-centage he allows to his assistants or counter JruMPERs on the sale of old-fashioned articles is termed tinge.

If he pays his workmen in goods, or gives them tickets upon other tradesmen, with whom he shares the profit, he is soon known as a tommy master. I need scarcely remark that any credit he may give is termed tick. When belonging to the same shop or factory, they geapt there, and are beothee chips. When out of work, they borrow a word from the flunkey vocabulary, and describe themselves as being out of collar. They term each other flints and dxtngs, if they are "society" or "non-society" men.

When they quit work, they knock off ; and when out of employ, they ask if any hands are wanted. Names of animals figure plenti- fully in the workman's vocabulary; thus we have goose, a tailor's smoothing-iron ; sheep's-foot, an iron hammer ; sow, a receptacle for molten iron, whilst the metal poured from it is termed pig. The subject is curious. Allow me to call the attention of numismatists to it. There yet remain several distinct divisions of Slang to be examined: The Irish phraset, bad scran to tee!

First, there is money, with one hundred and twenty Slang terms and synonymes ; then comes drink, from small beer to champagne ; and next, as a very natural sequence, intoxicattan, and fuddlement generally, with some half a hundred vulgar terms, graduating the scale of drunkenness from a slight inebriation, to the soaky state of gutterdom and stretcherdom, — I pray the reader to forgive the expressions.

Slcmg derivaHonM are generally indireet, turning upon metaphor amd fandful aUutione, and other than direct etymological connexion. Such aUuaiom and fandee are eeaentiaUy temporary or local; they rapidly past out of the public mind: They are well described imder the title of Bedlam Beggars.

It appears to have been the practice in former days to allow certain inmates of Bethlehem Hospital to have fixed days " to go begging;" hence impostors were said to '' sham Abraham " the Abraham Ward in Bedlam having for its inmates these mendicant lunatics when they pretended they were licensed beggars in behalf of the hospital. Abandannad, "an abandannad abandoned boy," is one who picks pockets of bandanna handkerchiefs.

They are also, from a supposed resemblance in form, termed newoate knookebs, which see. ALLS, tap-droppings, refuse spirits sold at a cheap rate in gin-palaces.

An artisan would use the same phrase to express the capa- bilities of a skilful fellow-workman. Sometimes all the way there. APOSTLES, The Twelve, the last twelve names on the Poll, or " Ordinary Degree " List at the Cambridge Examinations, when it was arranged in oider of merit, and not alphabetically, and in classes, as at present ; so called from there being post alies, after the others.

And almost every vice, almightie gold. One of the sheets is remoyed, and the other is doubled in the middle, so that both edges are brought to the top, and look as if both sheets were there ; but the unhappy occupant is prevented getting more than half way down, and his night's rest is in all probability spoiled. ATOMT, a diminutive or deformed person. AUNT SALLT, a favourite game on race-courses and at fairs, consisting of a wooden head mounted on a stick, firmly fixed in the ground ; in the nose of which, or rather in that part of the facial arrangement of AUNT BALLT whlch is generally considered incomplete without a nasal projection, a tobacco pipe is inserted.

The Duke of Beaufort is a "crack hand" at smashing pipe noses; and his performances a few years ago on Brighton race-course are yet fresh in remembrance. Aunt Sally proprietors are indebted to the noble duke for having brought the game into fashionable notoriety. AVAST, a sailor's phrase for stop, shut up, go away, — apparently connected with the old Cant, btnge a waste ; or from the Italian, basta, hold I enough. The phrase wide awake carries the same meaning in ordinary conversation.

AWFUL, or, with the Cockneys, obful, a senseless expletive, used to in- tensify a description of anything good or bad; " what an awful fine woman 1 " i. French term for Slang. Autumn, a Slang term for an execution by hanging. AT AH, a lady's-maid or nurse. Babes exist in Baltimore, U. Meta- phor boiTowed from the stables. Also a drink out of turn, as when a greedy person delays the decanter to get a second glass.

BACKEBy one who bets, or ''lays" his money, on a favourite horse; a one- sided supporter in a contest. Virgil has an exactly similar phrase, in jKJvs mere. Badminton proper is made of claret, sugar, spice, and cucumber peel iced, and is used by the Prize Ring as a cfynonyme for blood out of compliment to a well-known patron. BAKE, " he's only half bakxd," i,e.

This consists of thirteen or fourteen; the surplus number, called the inbread, being thrown in for fear of incurring the penalty for short weight.

To " give a man a bakeb's dozen," in a Slang sense, means to give him an extra good beating or pummelling. The term balaam-box has long been used in BUbckwood as the name of the depository for rejected articles. Evi- dently from Numbers xxiL 80, and denoting the " speech of an ass," or any story difficult of deglutition, not contained in Scripture.

Back Jump, a back window. Also, still more coarsely, '' bladdeb-ov-lard. The probability is that a nobleman first uted it in polite society. BANDY, or oriffle, a sixpence, so called from this coin being generally bent or crooked; old term for flimsy or bad doth, temp.

BANK, to put in a place of safety. Hence a marine term for goggles, which they resemble in shape, and for which they are used by sailors in case of ophthalmio derangement. Babkinq-Ibon, a pistoL Term used by footpads. Miege calls it " a sort of stuff; " Old French, babacan. BASH, to beat, thrash ; ''bashing a donna," beating a woman; originally a provincial word, and chiefly applied to the practice of beating walnut trees, when in bud, with long poles, to increase their productiveness.

The more you bash 'em, the better they be. Also, a sewing term. Formerly used to denote a prison, or "lock-up;" but its abbreviated form, steel, is now the favourite expression with the lower orders.

BAT, " on his own bat," on his own account — See hook. BATS, a pair of bad boots. Used metaphorically as early as BEAK, a magistrate, judge, or policeman ; " to baffle the beak," to get re- manded. Saxon, beag, a necklace or gold col- lar — emblem of authority. Sir John Fielding was called the blind- beak in the last century. Beakeb-Huhtsb, a stealer of poultiy. BEAR, one who contracts to deliver or sell a certain quantity of stock in the public funds on a forthcoming day at a stated place, but who does not possess it, trusting to a decline in public securities to enable him to ftdfil the agreement and realise a profit.

Both words are Slang terms on the Stock Exchange, and are frequently used in the business columns of newspapers. The contract was merely a wager, to be determined by the rise or fall of stock ; if it rose, the seller paid the difference to the buyer, pro- rdoned to the sum determined by the same oomputaticm to the seller.

BEAT, the allotted range traversed by a policeman on duty. BEAT, or beat-hollow, to surpass or excel ; also " beat into fits.

Originally bed-staff, a stick placed vertically in the frame of a bed to keep the bedding in its place. This was used sometimes as a defensive weapon. BEE, " to have a bee in one's bonnet," i. BEEFY, unduly thick or fat, commonly said of women's ancles.

BEERY, intoxicated, or fuddled with beer. The expression was first used in one of Mr Leech's caricatures in Punch. Bellowser, a blow in the " wind," or pit of the stomach ; taking one's breath away.

BEND, "that's above my bend," i,e. Also an ironical exclamation similar to walker! Formerly termed a Joseph, in allusion, perhaps, to Joseph's coat of many colours.

Bested, taken in, or defrauded. Bbstbb, a low betting cheat. See book, and book-makino. Bnr Cull, a friend, or " p8l. BILBO, a sword ; abbrev. Formerly in general use, now confined to the streets, where it is very common. Not many years since, one of the London notorieties was to heai the fishwomen at Billingsgate abuse each other. The anecdote of Dr Johnson and the BilUngsgate yirago is well known. BILLY, a silk pocket-handkerchief. Blub billy, blue ground with white spots. Cream vanot, any pattern on a white ground.

Green king's man, any pattern on a green ground. Bandal's man, green, with white spots; named after Jack Randal, pugilist. Yellow fancy, yellow, with white spots. Yellow man, all yellow. Occasionally he came out with real witticisms. He was a well-known street character about the east end of London, and died in Whitechapel Workhouse.

BING Y, a term largely used in the butter trade to denote bad ropy butter; nearly equivalent to vinnied. Billy-hunting, buying old metal — See billy-fenceb. Charles Bannister, the witty singer and actor, one day meet- ing a Bow -Street runner with a man in custody, asked what the prisoner had done ; and being told that he had stolen a bridle, and had been detected in the act of selling it, said, '' Ah 1 then, he wanted to touch the bit. BITE, a cheat ; '' a Yorkshire bite," a cheating fellow from that county.

Origin- ally a Gipsy term. If a north countryman be asked the distance to a place, he will most probably reply, " a mile and a bittock; " and the latter may be considered any distance from one hundred yards to ten mUes 1 B. Military officers in mufti, when out on a spree, and not wishing their profession to be known, speak of their barracks as the B.

In Suffolk, the afternoon refreshment of reapers is called beyer. It is also an old English term. The derivation of this term was solemnly argued before the full court of Queen's Bench, upon a motion for a new trial for libel, but was not decided by the learned tribunal Probably it is from the custom of sporting and turf men wearing black top-hoots.

Hence blaok-lsg came to be the phrase for a professional sporting man. Bit, a purse, or any sum of money. Mr QifiFord, however, in his late edition of Ben Jonson's worlcs, assigns an origin of the name different from what the old examples which I have cited seem to countenance. To this smutty regiment, who attended the progresses, and rode in the carts with the pots and kettles, which, with every other article of furniture, were then moved trova palace to palace, the people, in derision, gave the name of black gwirdsi a term since become sufficiently familiar, and never properly explained.

BLADE, a man — in ancient times the term for a soldier; "knowing bladb," a wide-awake, sharp, or cunning man. A castle in the county of Cork. Bladh is also flattery; hence the connexion. Originally a Military expression.

Also as applied to the brilliant habiliments of flunkeys. BLEED, to victimise, or extract money from a person, to sponge on, to make suffer vindictively. BLIND, a pretence, or make-believe. Blink-vsncbr, a person who sells spectacles.

Qvpsy and Hindoo, loks. North, bloaoheb, any large a-nima.! BLOOD, a fast or high-mettled man. Nearly obsolete in the sense in which it was used in Qeorge the Fourth's time.

It will hb sufficient to quote the answer of the butcher: BLOW UP, to make a noise, or scold ; formerly a Cant expression used amongst thieves, now a recognised and respectable phrase. Blowing UP, a jobation, a scolding. Blob, from blab, to talk. Beggars are of two kinds, — those who BOBEEYE, introduce themselves with a fakement, or false document, and those who blob, or state their case in their own truly " unvar- nished " language.

In America, "to blow" is Slang for to taunt Bloweb, a girl; a contemptuous name in opposition to jomeb. When the conversation hajs assumed an entirely opposite character, it is then said to be bbown, or Quakerish.

BLUE, confoimded or surprised; " to look blue," to be astonished or disap: Before a " set to," it is common to take it from the neck and tie it round the leg as a garter, or round the waist, to "keep in the wind. It is singular that this well-known Slang term for a London constable should have been used by Shahspeare. BLUES, a fit of despondency.

BLUFF, an excuse ; more frequently used as an adjective, in the sense of rough, coarse, plain-spoken. BLUFF, to turn aside, stop, or excuse. Sometimes tiiey get off with it by wrapping it round their bodies. It has been said that this term is from the French blokd, sandy or golden colour, and that a parallel may be found in brown or BROWNS, the slang for halfpence. Far-fetched as this etymology may be, it is doubtless correct, as it is borne out by the analogy of similar expressions. Formerly bobstiok, which may have been the originaL Bob-a-nob, a shilling a-head.

Walpole, as Joey is with Joseph Hume? BOB IT, drop it, give it up. Both bobby and peeler were nicknames given to the new police, in allusion to the Christian and surnames of the late Sir Robert Ped, who was the prime mover in effecting their introduction and improvement. The term bobby is, however, older than the Saturday Reviewer imagines.

The official square-keeper, who is always armed with a cane to drive away idle and disorderly urchins, has, time out of mind, been called by the said urchins, bobby the Beadle. Bobby is also, I may remark, an old English word for striking or hitting, a quality not unknown to policemen. In the Inns of Court, I am informed, the term is very common. BOLT, to run away, decamp, or abscond. BOLT, to swallow without chewing.

BONE, to steal or appropriate what does not belong to you. Also, a pretence, or make-believe, a sham bidder at auctions, one who metaphorically blhids or bonnets others.

Books are sometimes used. BOOK, an arrangement of bets for and against, chronicled in a pocket-book made for that purpose; '' making a book upon it," a common phrase to denote the general arrangement of a person's bets on a race.

Bone-grubber, a person who hunts dust-holes, gutters, and all likely spots for refuse bones, which he selis at the rag-shops, or to the bone- grinders. Tenn used by professional card-players. BOOM, '' to top one's boom off," to be off, or start in a certain direction. Booze, or suok-oasa, a public-house. The term is an old one. Harman, in Queen Elizabeth's days, speaks of '' bousino or boozing and belly-cheere.

BORE, a troublesome friend or acquaintance, a nuisance, anything which wearies or annoys, so called from his unvaried and pertinacious push- ing. The Oraaus ad Cantabrtgiam suggests the derivation of bobe from the Greek Bdpos, a burden. Not so, burly Grose, the term is still in favour, and is as piquant and expressive as ever. A person, in the Saturday Review, has stated that bosh 18 coeval with Morier's novel, Hadji Bahi, which was pub- lished in ; but this is a blunder. The term was used in this country as early as , and may be found in the Student, vol.

Grose baa a singular derivation, bother, or both-eared, from two persons talking at the same time, or to both ears. Blotheb, an old word, signifying to chatter idly. Slang term for Lord Pal- merston, derived from a speech he made some years ago when foreign secretary, in which he described himself as acting the part of a judicious "bottle-holder" among the foreign powers.

A lately-invented in- strument to hold a bottle has thus received the name of a palmerston. Power to stand fatigue ; endurance to receive a good beating, and still fight on. Lucus a non Iticendot Also a University term for a trap. Evidently a corruption of beau-oatoheb.

In old times this was called a lovelock, when it was the mark at which all the Puritan and ranting preachers levelled their pulpit pop-guns, loaded with sharp and virulent abuse. Terms only used by the lower orders. Ancient — See ken. BosMAN, a farmer; " faking a bosman on the main toby," robbing a farmer on the highway. It is now understood that the muci- lage of quince seed is used by the ladies for this purpose.

When men twist the hair on each side of their faces into ropes they are sometimes called bell-bofes, as being wherewith to draw the belles. Whether bell-ropes or bow-oatohers, it is singular they should form part of the prisoner's paraphernalia, and that a janty little kiss-me- quick curl should, of all thiiigs in the world, ornament a jail dock ; yet such was formerly the case.

Toung ladies, think of this! The method used at sea to learn boys the points of the mariner's compass. Properly a small kind of nails used by cobblers. Bbaoe up, to pawn stolen goods. Bracelets, handcufik Bbad-faking, playing at cards. Bbaooaoooio, three months' imprisonment as a reputed thief or old offen- der, — sometimes termed a dose, or a dollop. Properly, Bremt, bband, or Fire-new, i.

In some artillery-men stationed at Norwich were directed to prove some brass ordnance belonging to the city. To the report delivered to the corporation was appended this note: B, — It is customary for the corporal to have the old metal when any of the pieces burst.

Quarks in his EwJblems says: Are my bones brazil or my flesh of oak? Five-and-twenty is the price, but yer shall have them for BREEF, probably identical with bbdsf, q. When you cut to your adversary cut at the ends, and thffli it is a chance if you cut him an honour, because the cards at the ends are all of a length. Thus you may make breeflB end-ways, as well as side- ways. BRICK, a " jolly good fellow ;" " a regular brick," a staunch fellow.

And taught them to eschew all their addresses to the Queen. Said to be derived from an expression of Aristotle's — Terpayavos dvrjp. Used in France as well as in England, and termed in the Parisian Argot fairs le font. BRIEF, a pawnbroker's duplicate. Derived from the following: From the German, briefs, which Baron Heinecken says was the name given to the cards manufactured at Ulm.

English translation, by J. Also, bbothxb-whip, a fellow coach- man: Very common even in educated society, but hardly admissible in writing, and therefore considered a vulgarisuL It is derived, by a writer in Notes and Queries, from brow study, and he cites the old German braun, or aug-braun, an eye-brow. BRUSH, a fox's tail, a house-painter. BRUSH, or brush-ofp, to run away, or move on. BUB, a teat, woman's breast, plural bubbies ; no doubt from bibe. Brown pafermen, low gamblers.

Brum, a counterfeit coin. Corruption of Brummagem, Bromwicham, the ancient name of Birmingham, me great emporium for plated goods and imitation jewellery. I ; and Halliwell says that " the commentators do not supply another example.

Over all India, and the East generally, the natives lose no opportunity of asking for buckshish. The usage is such a complete nuisance, that the word is sometimes answered with a blow ; this is termed bamboo buckshish. BUDGE, to move, to inform, to split, or tell tales. BUFF, the bare skin ; "stripped to the buff.

In 1 73 7, a buffer was a "rogue that killed good sound horses for the sake of their skins, by running a long wire into them.

The term was once applied to those who took false oaths for a consideration. Oei-man, buffbl- hauft, buffalo-headed. Occurs in Plautui Comedies made English, BUGGY, a gig, or light chaise.

Common term in America and in India. Bubblet-jock, a turkey, or silly boasting fellow ; a prig. In the north of England the bird is called a bobble-cock. Both names no doubt from its cry.

Budge, strong drink; budgt, drunk; budging-ken, a public-house; " cove of the budging-ken," the landlord. Probably a corruption of booze. Set BEAR, who is the opposite of a bull, the former selling, the latter pur- chasing — the one operating for a faXl or a puU down, whilst the other operates for a rite or tou up. BULL, a crown-piece, formerly bull's etb. The result is drunk by sailors in default of something stronger.

BULLY, a braggart; but in the language of the streets, a man of the most degraded morals, who protects fallen females, and lives off their miser- able earnings.

BUM, the part on which we sit — STiahspeare. JBlackstone says it is a corruption of " bound bailiff. Adopted from Dickens's character in Oliver Twist. This and "bumbledom " are now common. Their skins were formerly in great request — Whence the term bxtff meaning in old English to skin. In Irish Cant, buffer is a boxer. The buffer of a railway carriage doubtless received its very appropriate name from the old pugilistic application of this term.

The player rolls a stone ball from the higher end, and according to the number of the hole it falls into the game is counted. It is undoubtedly the very ancient game of Trovle-in-nuidame. BUM-BOAT, a shore boat which supplies ships with provisions, and serves as means of communication between the sailors and the shore.

This term is given to a class of speculating salesmen at Billingsgate market, not recognised as such by the trade, but who get a living by buying large quantities of fish from the salesmen and re-sell- ing them to smaller buyers.

The word has been used in the statutes and bye-laws of the market for upwards of aoo years. It has been variously derived. Franc, The bummarees are accused of many trade tricks. One of them is to blow up cod-fish with a pipe until they look double their actual size. Of course when the fish come to table they are flabby, sunken, and half dwindled away. Robinson's '' Office," over against Threadneedle Street, was this: BUNDLING, a custom in Wales, and now frequently in America, of men and women sleeping, where the divisions of the house will not permit of better or more decent accommodation, with all their clothes on.

BUNQ, the landlord of a public-house. BUNG, to give, pass, hand over, drink, or indeed to perform any action. Also, to deceive one by a lie, to cram, which tee. The expression arose from a speech made by a North Carolina Senator. Prob- ably a comiption of bonus, bone, being the Slang for good. Bunoe, OroM gives as the Cant word for money. Every prison has a nickname of this Idnd, either from the name of the Governor, or from some local circumstance.

BURKE, to kill, to murder, secretly and without noise, by means of strangulation. The wretches having been apprehended and tried, Burke was executed, while Hare, having turned king's evidence, was released. Bishop was their London imitator. Also, a kiss, abbrev. A Mr Shillibeer started the first bub in London. Why is Temple Bar like a lady's veil? Because it wants to be removed to make way for the busses.

BUS, business of which it is a contraction or action, on the stage. BUST, or burst, to tell tales, to split, to inform. BuSTiwo, informing against accomplices when in custody. Scotch, BUS- tuous ; Icelandic, bostra. Burerk, a lady, a showily-dressed woman. Busker, a man who sings or performs in a public-house. Busk, or busking, to sell obscene songs and books at the bars and in the tap-rooms of public-houses.

Sometimes implies selling any articles. Bustle, money; " to draw the bustle. This meaning is given on the authority of Mr George Cruikshank. To butter, to flatter, cajole. At any mock or sham auction seedy specimens may be seen. BUTTT, a word used in the mining districts to denote a kind of overseer. Again, the word gracious is invested with a meaning as extensive as that attached by young ladies to nice.

Thus, we hear of a " gracious sermon," a " gracious meeting," a "gracious child," and even a " gracious whipping. It is applied to every person, book, or place, not impregnated with Eecordite principles. We once were witnesses of a ludicrous misunderstanding result- ing from this phraseology. The conclusion of one of these singular evening parties is generally marked by an "exposition" — an unseasonable sermon of nearly one hour's duration, circumscribed by no text, and delivered from the table by one of the clerical visitors with a view to " improve the occasion.

The old-fashioned High-Church party — rich and " stagnant," noted for its " sluggish mediocrity, hatred of zeal, dread of innovation, abuse of Dissent, blundering and languid utterance" — is called the high akd dry ; whilst the corresponding division, known as the Low Church — equally stagnant with the former, but poorer, and more lazUy inclined from absence of edu- cation to Dissent — receives the nickname of the low and slow.

Already have these terms become so familiar that they are short- ened, in ordinary conversation, to the dry and the slow. What can be more objectionable than the irreverent and offensive manner in which many of the Dissenting ministers continually pronounce the names of the Deity — God and Lord? I have observed that many young preachers strive hard to acquire this peculiar pronuncia- tion, in imitation of the older ministers. These vagaries of speech will, perhaps, by an apologist, be termed " pulpit peculiarities," and the writer dared to inter- meddle with a subject that is or should be removed from his criticisms.

The terms used by the mob towards the Church, however illiberal and satirically vulgar, are within his province in such an inquiry as the present. If a Tractarian, his outer garment is rudely spoken of as a pygostole, or m.

His profession is termed the cloth, and his practice tub-thumping. Should he belong to the Dissenting body, he is probably styled a pan- tiler, or a psalm-smiter, or, perhaps, a swaddler.

His chapel, too, is spoken of as a schism shop. A Eoman Catholic, I may remark, is coarsely named a brisket-beateb. Particular as lawyers generally are about the meaning of words, they have not prevented an unauthorised phraseology from arising, which we may term Legal Slang.

So forcibly did this truth impress a late writer, that he wrote in a popular journal, " You may hear Slang every day in term from barristers in their robes, at every mess-table, at every bar-mess, at every college commons, and in every club dining-room. Lawyers, from their connexion with the police courts, and transactions with persons in every grade of society, have ample opportunities for acquiring street Slang, which, in cross-questioning and wrangling, they frequently avail themselves of.

It has been said there exists a Literary Slang, or " the Slang of Criticism — dramatic, artistic, and scientific. Such words as 'aesthetic,' 'transcendental,' the 'harmonies,' the 'unities,' a ' mjrth: In the English newspapers the same thing is ohservable, and certain of them contain more of the class denominated Slang words than our own.

A short time since 4th May he gave an original etymology of the schoolboy-ism slog. And it was not long ago that he amused his readers with two columns on Slang and Sanscrit: While, however, the spirit of allegory comes from the East, there is so great a difference between the brevity of Western expression and the more cumbrous diction of the Oriental, that the origin of a phrase becomes difficult to trace.

Thus, for instance, whilst the Turkish merchant might address his friend somewhat as follows — ' That which seems good to my father is to his servant as the perfumed breath of the west wind in the calm night of the Arabian summer;' the Western negotiator observes more briefly, ' all sereke!

Bosh, remarks Punch, after speaking of it as belonging to the stock of words pilfered from the Turks, " is one whose innate force and beauty the slangographer is reluctantly compelled to admit It is the only word which seems a proper appellation for a great deal which we are obUged to hear and to read every day of our life. The universality of Slang, I may here remark, is proved by its continual use in the pages of Punch.

Whoever thinks, unless belonging to a past generation, of asking a friend to explain the stray vulgar words employed by the London Charivari? The AthencBum, the most learned and censor-like of aU the " weeklies," often indulges in a Slang word, when force of expres- sion or a little humour is desired, or when the writer wishes to say something which is better said in Slang, or so-called vulgar speech, than in the autherised language of Dr Johnson or Lindley Murray.

It was but the other day that a writer in its pages employed an old and favourite word, used always when we were highly pleased with any article at school — stunning.

Among the words and phrases which may be included under the head of Literary Slang are, Balaam, matter kept constantly in type about monstrous productions of nature, to fill up spaces in newspapers ; balaam-box, the term given in Blackwood to the repository for rejected articles ; and SLATE, to pelt with abuse, or cut up in a review.

The Momitig Post has obtained the suggestive sobriquet of jeames ; whilst the Morning Herald has long been caricatured as mes haeeis, and the Standard as mes gamp. The stage-manager is familiarly termed daddy ; and an actor by profession, or a " pro- fessional," is called a peg.

A man who is occasionally hired at a trifling remuneration to come upon the stage as one of a crowd, or when a number of actors are wanted to give efifect, is named a sup, — an abbreviation of " supernumerary. A ben is a benefit: The travelling or provincial theatricals, who perform in any large room that can be rented in a country village, are called baen-stoemees.

A saddle is the additional charge made by a manager to an actor or actress upon their benefit night To mug up is to paint one's face, or arrange the person to represent a particular character ; to coepse, or to stick, is to balk, or put the other actors out in their parts by forgetting yours.

A performance is spoken of as either a goosee or a sceeamee, should it be a failure or a great success ; — if the latter, it is not infrequently termed a hit. To stae it is to perform as the centre of attrac- tion, with none but subordinates and indifferent actors in the same performance.

There exists, too, in the great territory of vulgar speech what may not inappropriately be termed Civic Slang. It consists of mercantile and Stock-Exchange terms, and the Slang of good living and wealth. A bear is a speculator on the Exchange ; and a bctll, although of another order, follows a like profession There is something very humor- ous and applicable in the Slang term lame dqck, a defaulter in stock-jobbing speculations.

The allusion to his " waddling out of the Alley," as they say, is excellent. Breaking shins, in City Slang, is borrowing money ; a rotten or unsound scheme is spoken of as fishy ; " rigging the market" means playing tricks with it ; and stag was a common term during the railway mania for a speculator without capital, a seller of " scrip " in " Diddlesex Junction" and other equally safe lines. But before I proceed further in a sketch of the different kinds of Slang, I cannot do better than speak here of the extraordinary number of Cant and Slang terms in use to represent money — from farthings to bank-notes the value of fortimes.

So attentive is Slang speech to financial matters, that there are seven terms for bad, or " bogus" coin, as our friends, the Americans, call it: Flying THE kite, or obtaining money on bills and promissory-notes, is closely connected with the allegorical expression of eaisino the wind, which is a well-known phrase for procuring money by immediate sale, pledging, or by a forced loan.

In winter or in summer any elderly gentleman who may have prospered in Hfe is pronounced warm ; whilst an equivalent is immediately at hand in the phrase " his pockets are well lined. To begin with that extremely humble coin, a farthing: A halfpenny is a beown or a madza saltee, Cant, or a mag, or a posh, or a eap, — whence the popular phrase, " I don't care a eap. Fourpence, or a groat, may in vulgar speech be termed a bit, a flag, or a joey.

Sevenpence being an uncommon amount has only one Slang synonyme, setter. The same remark applies to eightpence and ninepence, the former being only represented by otter, and the latter by the Cant phrase nobba-saltee.

One shilling boasts eleven Slang equivalents ; thus we have beong, bob, beeaky-leg, deanee, gen, either from argent, sUver, or the back Slang, hog, levy, peg, stag, teviss, and: One shilling and sixpence is a kt-bosh. Half-a- crown is known as an aldeeman, half a bull, half a tushe- ROON, and a madza caeoon ; whilst a crown piece, or five shil- lings, may be called either a bull, or a caroon, or a cartwheel, or a coACHWHEEL, or a thick-un, or a tusheroon.

Guineas are nearly obsolete, yet the terms neds, and half neds, are still in use. Bank-notes are flimsies, long-tailed ones, or soft. A finuf is a five-pound note. One hundred pounds, or any other " round sum," quietly handed over as payment for services performed, is curiously termed "a cool hundred.

The antiquity of many of these Slang names is remarkable. Winn was the vulgar term for a penny in the days of Queen Elizabeth ; and testee, a sixpence, formerly a shilling, was the correct name in the days of Henry VIII. The reader, too, will have remarked the frequency of animals' names as Slang terms for money.

Little, as a modern writer has remarked, do the persons using these phrases know of their remote and some- what classical origin, which may, indeed, be traced to the period antecedent to that when monarchs monopoUsed the surface of coined money with their own image and superscriptions. They are identical with the very name of money among the early Romans, which was pecunia, from pecus, a flock. The collections of coin-dealers amply shew that the figure of a hog was anciently placed on a small silver coin ; and that that of a bull decorated larger ones of the same metal.

These coins were frequently deeply crossed on the reverse; this was for the convenience of easily breaking them into two or more pieces, should the bargain for which they were employed require it, and the parties making it had no smaller change handy to complete the transaction. We may learn from Erizzo, in his Discorso, a further illustration of the proverb "that there is nothing new under the sun ;" for he says that the Roman boys at the time of Hadrian tossed up their coppers and cried, "Head or ship;" of which tradition our "heads or tails" and "man or woman" is certainly a less-refined version.

We thence gather, however, that the prow of a vessel would appear to have been the more ordinary device of the reverse of the brass coin of that ancient period. It is not a casual eyesore, as newspaper Slang, neither is it an occasional discomfort to the ear, as in the case of some vulgar byword of the street ; but it is a perpetual nuisance, an4 stares you in the face on tradesmen's invoices, on labels in the shop- windows, and placards on the hoardings, in posters against the house next to your own door — if it happens to be empty for a few weeks — and in bills thrust into your hand, as you peaceably walk through the streets.

Under your door, and down your area. In this Slang any occupation or calling is termed a line, — thus, the " building link" A tailor usurps to himself a good deal of Slang. If he takes army contracts, it is sank work ; if he is a slop tailor, he is a springer up, and his garments are blown together. The per-centage he allows to his assistants or counter jumpers on the sale of old-fashioned articles is termed tinge. If he pays his workmen in goods, or gives them tickets upon other tradesmen, with whom he shares the profit, he is soon known as a tommy master.

I need scarcely remark that any credit he may give is termed tick. They generally dine at slap-bang shops, and are often paid at tommy shops. At the nearest pub, or public-house, they generally have a SCORE chalked rp against them, which has to be wiped off regularly on the Saturday night.

When out of work, they borrow a word from the flunkey vocabulary, and describe themselves as being out of collar. They term each other flints and dungs, if they are "society" or "non-society" men. Their salary is a screw, and to be discharged is to get the sack. When they quit work, they knock off ; and when out of employ, they ask if any hands are wanted. Fat is the vulgar synonyme for per- quisites ; elbow-grease signifies labour ; and saint Monday is the favourite day of the week.

Names of animals figure plenti- fully in the workman's vocabulary ; thus we have goose, a tailor's smoothing-iron ; sheep's-foot, an iron hammer ; sow, a receptacle for molten iron, whilst the metal poured from it is termed pig. I have often thought that many of the Slang terms for money originally came from the worshop, thus — brads, from the ironmonger ; chips, from the carpenter ; dust, from the goldsmith ; feathers, from the upholsterer ; horse-nails, from the farrier; haddock, from the fishmonger; and tanner, from the leather-dresser.

The subject is curious. Allow me to call the attention of numismatists to it. There yet remain several distinct divisions of Slang to be examined: I shall only examine the last two. If society, as has been remarked, is a sham, from the vulgar foundation of commonalty to the crowning summit of royalty, especially do we perceive the justness of the remark in the Slang makeshifts for oaths, and sham exclamations for passion and temper.

These apologies for feeling are a disgrace to our vernacular, although it is some satisfaction to know that they serve the purpose of reducing the stock of national profanity. Blazes, or " like blazes," came probably from the army. Blow me tight, is a very windy and common exclamation.

Nation is but a softening of damnation; and od, whether used in od deat it, or od's blood, is but an apology for the name of the Deity. Marry, a term of asseveration in common use, was originally, in Popish times, a mode of swearing by the Virgin Mary; q. I 'U bring him down upon his marrow-hones — i. The Irish phrase, bad scran to yer! Both DEUCE and dickens are vulgar old synonymes for the devil ; and zounds is an abbreviation of god's wounds, — a very ancient Catholic oath.

First, there is money, with one hundred and twenty Slang terms and synonymes ; then comes drink, from small beer to champagne ; and next, as a very natural sequence, intoxictUion, and fuddlement generally, with some half a hundred vulgar terms, graduating the scale of drunkenness from a slight inebriation, to the soaky state of gutterdom and stretcherdom, — I pray the reader to forgive the expressions.

But the climax of fuddlement is only obtained when the disguised indi- vidual can't see a hole in a laddee, or when he is all mops and" beooms, or off his nut, or with his main-beace well SPUCED, or with the sun in his eyes, or when he has lapped THE guttee, and got the geavel eash, or on the ean-tan, or on the EE-EAW, or when he is sewed up, or regularly scammeeed, — then, and not till then, is he entitled, in vulgar society, to the title of LUSHiNGTON, Or recommended to put in the pin.

Slang derivations are generally indirect, turning upon metaphor and fanciful allusions, and other than direct etymological connexion. Such allusions and fancies are essentially temporary or local; they rapidly pass out of the public mind: A I, first-rate, the very beet ; " she's a prime girl, she ia ; she ig A I.

The highest classification of ships at Lloyd's; common term in the United States ; also at Liverpool and other English sear ports. Another, even more intensitive, form is, " first-class, letter A, No. They are well described under the title of Bedlam Beggars. It appears to have been the practice in former days to allow certain inmates of Bethlehem Hospital to have fixed days " to go begging ; " hence impostors were said to " sham Abraham " the Abraham Ward in Bedlam having for its inmates these mendicant lunatics when they pretended they were licensed beggars in behalf of the hospital.

Abandannad, " an abandanjtad abandoned boy," is one who picks pockets of bandanna handkerchiefs. But you mustn't sham Abraham Newland. The Scotch term is adau's wine. They are also, from a supposed resemblance in form, termed newoate knoceebs, which see. ALLS, tap-droppings, refuse spirits sold at a cheap rate in gin-palaces. An artisan would use the same phrase to express the capa- bilities of a skilful fellow-workman.

Sometimes ALL tub way these. AN'T, or ain't, the vulgar abbreviation of " am not," or " are not. Incognita was the term at first. APOSTLES, The Twelve, ttie last twelve names on the Poll, or " Ordinary Degree " List at the Cambridge Examinations, when it was arranged in order of merit, and not alphabetically, and in classes, as at present ; so called from there being post alies, after the others.

ARY, corruption of " ever a," " e'er a ;" art one, i. ATOMY, a diminutive or deformed person. AUNT SALLY, a favourite game on race-courses and at fairs, consisting of a wooden head mounted on a stick, firmly fixed in the ground ; in the nose of which, or rather in that part of the facial arrangement of ADNT SALLY which is generally considered incomplete without a nasal projection, a tobacco pipe is inserted.

The fun consists in standing at a distance and demolishing aunt sally's pipe-clay projection with short bludgeons, very similar to the half of a broom-handle. The Duke of Beaufort is a "crack hand" at smashing pipe noses; and his performances a few years ago on Brighton race-course are yet fresh in remembrance. Aunt Sally proprietors are indebted to the noble duke for having brought the game into fashionable notoriety.

The phrase wide awake carries the same meaning in ordinary conversation. AWFUL, or, with the Cockneys, orpdl, a senseless expletive, used to in- tensify a description of anything good or bad ; " what an awful fine woman I" i. Argot, a term used amongst London thieves for their secret or Cant lan- guage.

French term for Slang. Autumn, a Slang term for an execution by hanging. When the drop was introduced instead of the old gallows, cart, and ladder, and a man was for the first time " turned-ott" in the present fashion, the mob were BO pleased with the invention that they spoke of the operation as at AUTUMN, or the fall or the leaf, hc. AYAH, a lady's-maid or nurse. BABES, the lowest order of knock-outs, which tee, who are prevailed upon not to give opposing biddings at auctions, in consideration of their receiving a small sum, from one shilling to half-a-crown, and a certain quantity of beer.

Babes exist in Baltimore, U. The terra is very generally used in the " ring," as well as on the " turf. Meta- phor borrowed from the stables. Also a drink out of turn, as when a greedy person delays the decanter to get a second glass. BACKER, one who bets, or "lays" his money, on a favourite horse; a one- sided supporter in a contest. Sporting, and very general. BACON, " to save one's bacon," to escape. BAD, " to go to the bad," to deteriorate in character, be ruined.

Virgil has an exactly similar phrase, in pejus ruere. Badminton proper is made of claret, sugar, spice, and cucumber peel iced, and is used by the Prize Ring as a synonyme for blood out of compliment to a well-known patron. Used in the drapery trade. Trousers of an extensive pattern, or exaggerated fashion- able cut, have lately been termed howlinq-bags, but only when the style has been very " loud.

BAKE, " he's only half baked," i. This consists of thirteen or fourteen; the surplus number, called the inbread, being thrown in for fear of incurring the penalty for short weight. To " give a man a baker's dozen," in a Slang sense, means to give him an extra good beating or pummelling.

The term balaam-box has long been used in Blackwood as the name of the depository for rejected articles. Evi- dently from Numbers xxii. Back Jump, a back window. Also, still more coarsely, " bladder-of-lard. The Straits of Ballambanojanq, though unno- ticed by geographers, are frequently mentioned in sailors' yarns as being so narrow, and the rooks on each side so crowded with trees inhabited by monkeys, that the ship's yards cannot be squared, on accouut of the monkeys' tails getting jammed into, and choking up, the brace blocks.

BALMY, sleep; "have a dose of the balmy" — go to sleep. The probability is that a nobleman first vaed it in polite society. The term is derived from the Gipsies. BANDY, or cripplk, a sixpence, so called from this coin being generally bent or crooked ; old term for flimsy or bad cloth, temp.

BANK, to put in a place of safety. BARKER, a man employed to cry at the doors of " gaffs," shows, and puffing shops, to entice people inside. Hence a marine term for goggles, which they resemble in shape, and for which they are used by sailors in case of ophthalmia derangement. Ball, prison allowance, viz.

Term used by footpads. Miege calls it " a sort of stuff; " Old French, baeacan. BASH, to beat, thrash; " bashing a donna," beating a woman; originally a provincial word, and chiefly applied to the practice of beating walnut trees, when in bud, with long poles, to increase their productiveness.

Also, a sewing term. General name for " the Union " amongst the lower orders of the North. Formerly used to denote a prison, or "lock-up;" but its abbreviated form, steel, is now the favourite expression with the lower orders. BAT, " on his own bat," on his own account. BATS, a pair of bad boots. Derived from Batta, an extra pay given to soldiers while serving in India. Used metaphorically as early as Gipsy and Hindoo, a market.

Saxon, beag, a necklace or gold col- lar — emblem of authority. Sir John Fielding was called the blind- beak in the last century. Beaker-Hunter, a stealer of poultry. BEAR, one who contracts to deliver or sell a certain quantity of stock in the public funds on a forthcoming day at a stated place, but who does not possess it, trusting to a decline in public securities to enable him to fulfil the agreement and realise a profit. Both words are Slang terms on the Stock Exchange, and are frequently used in the business columns of newspapers.

The contract was merely a wager, to be determined by the rise or fall of stock ; if it rose, the seller paid the difiference to the buyer, pro- portioned to the sum determined by the same computation to the seller. BEAT, the allotted range traversed by a policeman on duty. BEAT, or beat-hollow, to surpass or excel ; also " beat into fits. Originally bed-staff, a stick placed vertically in the frame of a bed to keep the bedding in its place. This was used sometimes as a defensive weapon.

BEE, " to have a bee in one's bonnet," i. BEEFY, unduly thick or fat, commonly said of women's ancles. BEEBY, intoxicated, or fuddled with beer. Bellowser, a blow in the " wind," or pit of the stomach ; taking one's breath away. BEND, "that's above my bend," i. Also an ironical exclamation similar to walker! Formerly termed a Joseph, in aUusion, perhaps, to Joseph's coat of many colours.

BENJY, a waistcoat, — the diminutive of benjamin. BEST, to get the better or "beat" of a man in any way — not necessarily to cheat — to have the best of a bargain. Bested, taken in, or defrauded. Besteb, a low betting cheat. See book, and book-makino. Bellowsed, or lagged, transported. Ben Cull, a friend, or " pal.

BiiiTy, a skeleton key, or picklock. BILBO, a sword; abbrev. BILK, a cheat, or a swindler. Formerly in general use, now confined to the streets, where it is very common. Kot many years since, one of the London notorieties was to heai the fishwomen at Billingsgate abuse each other. The anecdote of Dr Johnson and the Billingsgate virago is well known. BILLY, a silk pocket-handkerchief. This was adopted by Jim Belcher, the pugilist, and soon became popu- lar amongst " the fancy.

Blue billy, blue ground with white spots. Cream fancy, any pattern on a white ground. Randal's man, green, with white spots; named after Jack Bandal, pugilist. Water's man, sky coloured. Yellow fancy, yellow, with white spots. Yellow man, all yellow. Occasionally he came out with real witticisms. He was a well-known street character about the east end of London, and died in Whitechapel Workhouse.

BINGY, a term largely used in the butter trade to denote bad ropy butter; nearly equivalent to vinnied. BiLLT, a policeman's staff. Billy, stolen metal of any kind. Billy-huntino, buying old metal. Billy-fenceb, a marine-store dealer. A BIT is the smallest coin in Jamaica, equal to 6d.

Charles Bannister, the witty singer and actor, one day meet- ing a Bow -Street runner with a man in custody, asked what the prisoner had done ; and being told that he had stolen a bridle, and had been detected in the act of selling it, said, " Ah I then, he wanted to touch the bet.

BITE, a cheat ; " a Yorkshire bite," a cheating fellow from that county. Swift says it originated with a nobleman in his day. Origin- ally a Gipsy term.

If a north countryman be asked the distance to a place, he will most probably reply, " a mile and a bittock; " and the latter may be considered any distance from one hundred yards to ten miles! Military officers in mufti, when out on a spree, and not wishing their profession to be known, speak of their barracks as the B.

In Sufiblk, the afternoon refreshment of reapers is called bever. It is also an old English term. Both words are probably from the Italian, bevere, bebe. The derivation of this term was solemnly argued before the full court of Queen's Bench, upon a motion for a new trial for libel, but was not decided by the learned tribunal.

Probably it is from the custom of sporting and turf men wearing black top-boots. Bailey has cross- bite, a disappointment, probably tho primary sense; and bite is very probably a contraction of this. Bit, a purse, or any sum of money. Mr Malono agrees with me in exhibiting the two first of the following ex- amples: Mr GifTord, however, in his late edition of Ben Jonson's works, assigns an origin of the name different from what the old examples which I have cited seem to countenance.

To this smutty regiment, who attended the progresses, and rode in the carts with the pots and kettles, which, with every other article of furniture, were then moved from palace to palace, the people, in derision, gave the name of black guards; a term since become sufficiently familiar, and never properly explained.

BLADE, a man — in ancient times the term for a soldier; "knowing blade," a wide-awake, sharp, or cunning man. A castle in the county of Cork. It v said that whoever kisses a certain stool in this castle will be able to persuade others of whatever he or she pleases. The name of the castla is derived from bladh, a blossom, i. Bladh is also flattery; hence the connexion. Originally a Military expression. Also as applied to the brilliant habiliments of flunkeys.

BLEED, to victimise, or extract money from a person, to sponge on, to make sufier vindictively. BLIND, a pretence, or make-believe. North, bloaoheb, any large animal. Nearly obsolete in the sense in ' which it was used in George the Fourth's time. BLOW ME, or blow me tight, a vow, a ridiculous and unmeaning ejacula- tion, inferring an appeal to the ejaculator ; " I 'm slowed if you will " is a common expression among the lower orders; "blow me up" was the term a century ago.

However, I accepted the terms conditionally — that is to say, provided the principle could be properly carried out. Accordingly, I wrote to my butcher, baker, and other tradesmen, in- forming them that it was necessary, for the sake of cheap literature and the interest of the reading public, that they should furnish me with their several commodities at a very trifling per-centage above cost price.

It will be sufficient to quote the answer of the butcher: Cheap literuter be blowkdI Butchers must live as well as other pepel ' — and if so be you or the readin' publick wants to have meat at prime cost, you must buy your own beastesses, and kill yourselves.

BLOW UP, to make a noise, or scold ; formerly a Cant expression used amongst thieves, now a recognised and respectable phrase. Blowing UP, a jobation, a scolding. Blob, from blab, to talk. Beggars are of two kinds, — those who SCREEVB, introduce themselves with a fakement, or false document, and those who blob, or state their case in their own truly " unvar- nished " language. Blow, to expose, or inform ; " blow the gaff," to inform against a person.

In Wilts, a blowkn is a blossom. Germ, bluhen, to bloom. Possibly, however, the street term blowen may mean one whose re- putation has been blown upon, or damaged. A correspondent says, "probably from hanging the lip. BLUE, or blew, to pawn or pledge. BLUE, confounded or surprised ; " to look blue," to be astonished or disap- pointed. Before a " set to," it is common to take it from the neck and tie it round the leg as a garter, or round the waist, to "keep in the wind.

It is singular that this well-known Slang term for a London constable should have been used by Skakspeare. BLUES, a fit of despondency. BLUFF, an excuse ; more frequently used as an adjective, in the sense of rough, coarse, plain-spoken. BLUFF, to turn aside, stop, or excuse. Blodger, a low thief, who does not hesitate to use violence. Sometimes they get off with it by wrapping it round their bodies.

It has been said that this terin is from the French blowd, sandy or golden colour, and that a parallel may be found in brown or BROWNS, the slang for halfpence. Far-fetched as this etymology may be, it is doubtless correct, as it is borne out by the analogy of similar expressions.

The "asper" asTTpav of Constan- tinople is called by the Turks akcueh, i. Formerly bobstick, which may have been the original. Query, if qonnected with Sir Eob. Walpole, as Joet is with Joseph Hume? BOB, " s' help my bob," a street oath, equivalent to "so help me God.

BOB IT, drop it, give it up. Both BOBBT and peeler were nicknames given to the new police, in allusion to the Christian and surnames of the late Sir Robert Peel, who was the prime mover in effecting their introduction and improvement.

The term bobbt is, however, older than the Saturday Reviewer imagines. Bobby is also, I may remark, an old English word for striking or hitting, a quality not unknown to policemen. BODKIN, a small, or young person, sitting in the centre, between two others, in a carriage, is said "to ride bodkin.

In the Inns of Court, I am informed, the term is very common. Camden, how- ever, speaking of the "debateable land" on the borders of England and Scotland, says, " both these dales breed notable boo-trotters. BOLT, to run away, decamp, or abscond. BOLT, to swallow without chewing. The name is now given to a dried fish, bummelow, much eaten by natives and Europeans in Western India. BONE, to steal or appropriate what does not belong to you. BONES, " he made no bones of it," he did not hesitate, i.

It oonsiBts in placing a pitcher, of water on the top of a door set ajar for the pur- pose ; the person whom they wish to drench is then enticed to pass through the door, and receives the pitcher tmd its contents on his un- lucky head. Books are sometimes used. BOOK, an arrangement of bets for and against, chronicled in a pocket-book made for that purpose; " making a book upon it," a commim phrase to denote the general arrangement of a person's bets on a race.

The principle of making a book, or bettino round, as it is sometimes termed, is to lay out a previously-determined sum against every horse in the race, or as many as possible ; and should the book- maker GET bound, i. Bone-grubber, a person who hunts dust-holes, gutters, and all likely spots for refuse bones, which he sells at the rag-shops, or to the bone- grinders.

Term iised by professional card-players. Booze, or suoe-casa, a public-house. The term is an old one. Hanman, in Queen Elizabeth's days, speaks of " bousinq or boozing and belly-oheere. BOOZY, intoxicated or fuddled. BORE, a troublesome friend or acquaintance, a nuisance, anything which wearies or annoys, so called from his unvaried and pertinacious push- ing.

The Gradus ad Cantdbrigiam suggests the derivation of bore from the Greek Bdpos, a burden. Not so, burly Grose, the term is still in favour, and is as piquant and expressive as ever. He said, as reported by the Times: He alone, by constantly returning to the charge, and repeating the same truths and the same requests, succeeds in awakening attention to the cause which he advocates, and obtains that hearing which is granted him at last for self- protectiou, as the minor evil compared to his importunity, but which is requisite to make his cause imderstood.

A person, in the Saturday Review, has stated that bosh is coeval with Morier's novel, Hadji Babi, which was pub- lished in ; but this is a blunder. The term was used in this country as early as , and may be found in the Student, vol.

A correspondent asserts that this colloquial expression is from the Qerman bosh, or bossch, answering to our word " swipes. Oxon, so called from its remote situation. Grose haa a singular derivation, bother, or both-eared, from two persons talking at the same time, or to both ears. Bloibsb, an old word, signifying to chatter idly. Slang term for Lord Pal- merston, derived from a speech he made some years ago when foreign Beci etary, in which he described himself as acting the part of a judicious "bottle-holder" among the foreign powers.

A lately-invented in- strument to hold a bottle has thus received the name of a palmerston. Power to stand fatigue ; endurance to receive a good beating, and still fight on. See Death and Dr Harnhook. Luevs a non lucendot Also a University term for a trap. Evidently a corruption of beau-catcher. In old times this was called a lovelock, when it was the mark at which all the Puritan and ranting preachers levelled their pulpit pop-guns, loaded with sharp and virulent abuse.

Hall and Prynne looked upon Bosh, a fiddle. Terms only used by the lower orders. BosMAN, a farmer ; " faking a bosman on the main toby," robbing a farmer on the highway. Both terms from the Dutch, bosch-man, one who lives in the woods ; otherwise Boschjenum, or Bushman. It is now understood that the muci- lage of quince seed is used by the ladies for this purpose.

And your eyes so brightly flashing ; My Bong sliall be of that sauva curl Which threatens my heart to smash In.

When men twist the hair on each side of their faces into ropes they are sometimes called bell-hopes, as being wherewith to draw the belles. Whether bell-ropes or bow-oatchers, it is singular they should form part of the prisoner's paraphernalia, and that a janty little kiss-me- quick curl should, of all things in the world, ornament a jail dock ; yet such was formerly the case.

Hunt, " the accomplice after the fact and king's evidence against" the murderer of Weare, on his trial, we are informed by the Athenceum, appeared at the bar with a highly poma- tumed love-look sticking tight to his forehead. Young ladies, think of this! The method used at sea to learn boys the points of the mariner's compass.

Properly a small kind of nails used by cobblers. Brad-fakikq, playing at cards. Bbaggadooio, three months' imprisonment as a reputed thief or old offen- der, — sometimes termed a DOSE, or a dollop. Properly, Bnvt, beajjd, or Fire-new, i.

In some artillery-men stationed at Norwich were directed to prove some brass ordnance belonging to the city. To the report delivered to the corporation was appended this note: Such a person is said " to have rubbed his face with a brass candlestick. Are my bones brazil or my flesh of oak? Five-and-twenty is the price, but yer shall have them for 20s.

BREEF, probably identical with brief, q. When you cut to your adversary cut at the ends, and then it is a chance if you cut him an honour, because the cards at the ends are all of a length. Thus you may make breefs end-ways, as well aa side-. And taught them to eschew all their aiidresses to the Queen. If again they try it on, why to floor them I'll make one.

Spite of Peeler or of Don, like a brick and a Bean. Said to be derived from an expression of Aristotle's — TeTpayavos avrfp. A recently current story informs us that Lillywhite, the cricketer, was originally a brickmaker, and that from him a " stumping bowl " acquired the name of a "regular brick. Used in France as well as in England, and termed in the Parisian Argot faire le font. BRIEF, a pawnbroker's duplicate. Derived from the following: From the German, briefe, which Baron Heinecken says was the name given to the cards manufactured at Ulm.

Brief is also the synonyme for a card in the German Rothwahch dialect, and briefen to play at cards. English translation, by J. BRIM, a violent irascible woman, as inflammable and unpleasant as brim- stone, from which the word is contracted.

Bkosier-mt-DAME, Bchool term, imply- ing a clearing of the housekeeper's larder of provisions, in revenge for stinginess. Also, brother- whip, a fellow coach- man: Very common even in educated society, but hardly admissible in writing, and therefore considered a vulgarism. It is derived, by a writer in Notes and Queries, from brow study, and he cites the old German braun, or aug-bkaun, an eye-brow.

Shakspeare uses the word bruising in a similar sense. BRUSH, a fox's tail, a house-painter. BRUSH, or bbush-ofp, to run away, or move on. BUB, drink of any kind. Brown papebmen, low gamblers. Brum, a counterfeit coin.

Corruption of Brummagem, Bromwicham, the ancient name of Birmingham, me great emporium for plated goods and imitation jewellery. Shalspeare uses the word in the latter sense, Henry IV. Stop the first costermonger, and he will soon inform you of the various meanings of buckle.

Over all India, and the East generally, the natives lose no opportunity of asking for buokshish. The usage is such a complete nuisance, that the word is sometimes answered with a blow ; this is termed bamboo buckshish. BUDGE, to move, to inform, to split, or tell tales. In , a buffer was a "rogue that killed good sound horses for the sake of their skins, by running a long wire into them.

The term was once applied to those who took false oaths for a consideration. BUGGY, a gig, or light chaise. Common term in America and in India. Bubblet-jock, a turkey, or sUIy boasting fellow ; a prig. In the north of England the bird is called a bobble-cock. Both names no doubt from its cry. Budge, strong drink; budgt, drunk; budging-ken, a public-house; " cove of the budgino-ken," the landlord.

Probably a corruption of boozb. BULL, one who agrees to purchase stock at a future day, at a stated price, but who does not possess money to pay for it, trusting to a rise in public securities to render the transaction a profitable one. Should stocks fall, the bull is then called upon to pay the difference. See BEAB, who is the opposite of a bull, the former selling, the latter pur- chasing — the one operating for a fall or a pall down, whilst the other operates for a rise or toss up.

BULL, a crown-piece, formerly bull's etk. The result is drunk by sailors in default of something stronger. Query, corruption of bolefence? BULLY, a braggart; but in the language of the streets, a man of the most degraded morals, who protects fallen females, and lives off their miser- able earnings. This epithet is often applied in a commendable sense among the vul- gar ; thus — a good fellow or a good horse will be termed " a bullt fellow," " a BULLT horse ; " and " a bullt woman " signifies a rightj good, motherly old soul.

Blaehstone says it is a corruption of " bound baihff. Adopted from Dickens's character in Oliver Twist. This and "bumbledom " are now common. Their skins were formerly in great request — hence the term buff meaning in old English to skin. In Irish Cant, buffer is a boxer. The buffer of a railway carriage doubtless received its very appropriate name from the old pugilistic application of this term.

Bull, term amongst prisoners for the meat served to them in jail. The player rolls a stone ball from the higher end, and according to the number of the hole it falls into the game is counted. It is undoubtedly the very ancient game of Troule-in-madame. BUM-BOAT, a shore boat which supplies ships with provisions, and serves as means of communication between the sailors and the shore. This term is given to a class of speculating salesmen at Billingsgate market, not recognised as such by the trade, but who get a living by buying large quantities of fish from the salesmen and re-sell- ing them to smaller buyers.

The word has been used in the statutes and bye-laws of the market for upwards of years. It has been variously derived. The bummakkes are accused of many trade tricks. One of them is to blow up cod-fish with a pipe until they look double their actual size.

. CUB, a mannerless, imcouth lout. French term for Slang. Also an ironical exclamation similar to walker! Virgil has an exactly similar phrase, in pejus ruere. The Gipsies, also, found the same difficulty with the English language. It was obtained from the patterers and tramps who supplied a great many words for this work, and who have been employed by me for some time in collecting Old Ballads, Christmas Carols, Dying Speeches, and Last Lamentations, as materials for a History of Popular Literature.

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International escorts best free hookup Victoria Green king's man, milfs nsa urban dictionary Melbourne, any pattern on a green ground. Military officers in mufti, when out on a spree, and not wishing their profession to be known, speak of their barracks as the B. The stage-manager is familiarly termed daddy ; and an actor by profession, or a " pro- fessional," is called a peg. BuSTiwo, informing against accomplices when in custody. There is scarcely a condition or calling in life that does not possess its own peculiar Slang. Should there be no map, in most lodging-houses there is an old man who is guide to every " walk" in the vicinity, and who can tell on every round each house that is "good for a cold tatur.
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Cant was formed for purposes of secrecy. Slang is indulged in from a desire to appear familiar with life, gaiety, town-humour, and with the transient nicknames and street jokes of the day. Both Cant and Slang, I am aware, are often huddled together as synonymes; but they are distinct terms, and as such should be used.

To the Gipsies beggars and thieves are undoubtedly indebted for their Cant language. They came here with all their old Eastern arts of palmistry, fortune - telling, doubling money by incantation and burial, — shreds of pagan idolatry; and they brought with them, also, the dishonesty of the lower caste of Asiatics, and the vagabondism they had acquired since leaving their ancient dwelling-places in the East many centuries before.

Vagabondism is peculiarly catching. The idle, the vagrant, and the criminal outcasts of society, caught an idea fix m the so-called Egyptians — soon corrupted to Gipsies. The Gipsies, also, found the same difficulty with the English language. Such was the origin of Cant ; and in illustration of its blend- ing with the Gipsy or Cin'gari tongue, dusky and Oriental from the sunny plains of Central Asia, I aim enabled to give the accompanying list of Gipsy, and offcen Hindoo, words, with, in many instances, their English adoptions: Modem Qvpty, make a fool of any one.

Oipey and very good article. CUTA, a gold coin. BADE, or Dadi, a father. QAD, or Gadsi, a wife. Oipty and Hindoo, liULL, to spoil or destroy. Englith, CUR, a mean or dishonest man. MOO, or Muir, the mouth. MULL, to spoil, or bungle. PAL, a partner, or relation. RIG, a frolic, or " spree.

RUM, a good man, or thing. SLANG, low, vulgar, unauthorised language. Here, then, we have the remarkable feet of several words of pure Gipsy and Asiatic origin going the round of Europe, passing into this country before the Reformation, and coming down to ns through numerous generations purely in the mouths of the people. They have seldom been written or used in books, and simply as vulgarisms have they reached our time.

Our standard dictionaries give, of course, none but conjectural etymologies. It is not in the old dictionaries, although extensively used in fEuniliar or popular language for the last two centuries ; in fact, the very word that Swift, Butler, UEstrange, and Arbuthnot would pick out at once as a telling and most serviceable term. It is, as we have seen, from the Gipsy ; and here I must state that it was Boucher who first drew attention to the fact, although in his remarks on the dusky tongue he has made a ridiculous mistake by concluding it to be identical with its ofiEspring, Cant.

Other parallel instances, with but slight variations from the old Gipsy meanings, could be mentioned; but suffident examples have been adduced to shew that Marsden, the great Oriental scholar in the last centuiy, when he declared before the Society of Anti- quaries that the Cant of English thieves and beggars had nothing to do with the language spoken by the despised Gipsies, was in error.

Had the Gipsy tongue been analysed and committed to writing three centuries ago, there is every probability that many scores of words now in common use could be at once traced to its source. Instances continually occur now-a-days of street vulgar- isms ascending to the drawing-rooms of respectable society. Why, then, may not the Gipsy-vagabond alliance three centuries ago have contributed its quota of common words to popular speech?

As George Borrow, in his Account of the Gipsies in Spain, eloquently concludes his second volume, speaking of the connexion of the Gipsies with Europeans: On the Continent they received better attention at the hands of learned men. Grellman, a learned German, was their principal historian, and to him we are almost entirely indebted for the little we know of their languagct The first European settlement of the Gipsies was in the provinces ad- joining the Danube, Moldau and Theiss, where M.

GiPST, then, started, and partially merged into Cant; and the old story told by Harrison and others, that the first inventor of canting was hanged for his pains, would seem to be a fable, for jargon as it is, it was, doubtless, of gradual formation, like all other languages or systems of speech. The Gipsies at the pres- ent day all know the old Cant words, as well as their own tongue, — or rather what remains of it. Other instances could be pointed out, but they will be observed in the Dictionary.

Several words are entirely obsolete. As before mentioned, it was the work of one Thomas Harman, a gentleman who lived in the days of Queen Elizabeth.

Some mentioned anywhere as a respectable tenn befcure ? If not it had a vulgar or Gant introduction into this countiy. A tinker's budget is from the same source. All these statements are equally incorrect, for the first attempt was made more than a century before the latter work was issued. The quaint spelling and old-fashioned phrase- ology are preserved, and the reader will quickly detect many vulgar street words, old acquaintances, dressed in antique garb, j: BUFE, [buffer, a man,] a dogge.

Head professed to have lived with the Gipsies, but in reality filched his words from Docker and Brome. CHETEy [see what has been previously said about this word. COFE, [cove,] a person. DELL, a yonge wench. PL AGO, a groat. OTOEB, [jigger,] a dore. LAP, butter, mylke, or whey. Oogalniceano's Eaaai tur lea Cigcnns de la Moldo-Valachie. LTCKE, [lick,] to beate. LTP, to lie down. MAKE, [mag,] a halfpenny. They are mostly Welshmen, Harman says. ROME, goode, [now curious, noted, or remarkable in any way.

Rvm is the modem orthography. SLA TE, a sheete or shetes. If he say he was, he will know of whom, and his name yt stalled him. Then dooth this upright man call for a gage of bowse, which is a quarte potte of drink, and powres the same vpon his peld pate, adding these words, — I, O. Hasman was the first author who specially wrote against English vagabonds, and for his trouble his name became synonymous with a pair of stocks, or a policeman of the olden time.

Many of these were soon picked up and adopted by vagabonds and tramps in their Cant language. The Anglo- Norman and the Anglo-Saxon, the Scotch, the French, the Italian, and even the classic languages of ancient Italy and Greece, have contributed to its list of words, besides the various provincial dialects of England.

Booze, or bottse, I am reminded by a friendly corre- spondent, comes from the Dutch buybek. Domine, a parson, is from the Spanish. Donna and feeles, a woman and children, is from the Latin; and DON, a clever fellow, has been filched from the Lingua Franca, or bastard Italian, although it sounds like an odd mixture of Spanish and French ; whilst dudds, the Tulgar term for clothes, may have been pilfered either from the Gkielic or the Dutch.

So are gent, silver, from the French Argent; and vial, a country town, also from the French. Hobbid-hobn, a fool, is believed to be from the Erse ; and oloak, a man, from the Scotch.

As stated before, the Dictionary will supply numerous other instances. The Celtic languages have contributed many Cant and vulgar words to our popular vocabulary. These have come to us through the Qaelic or Irish languages, so closely allied in their material as to be merely dialects of a primitive common tongue.

This element may be from the Celtic population, which, from its ancient position as slaves or servants to the Anglo-Saxon conquerors, has contributed so largely to the lowest class of our population, and therefore to our Slang, provincial, or colloquial words ; or it may be an importation from Irish immigrants, who have undoubtedly contributed very largely to our criminal population.

There is one source, however, of secret street terms, which in the first edition of this work was entirely overlooked, — indeed, it was unknown to the editor until pointed out by a friendly correspondent; — the Lingvo, Franca, or bastard Italian, spoken at Qenoa, Trieste, Malta, Constantinople, Smyrna, Alexandria, and all Mediterranean seaport towns.

The ingredients of this imported Cant are many. Its foundation is Italian, with a mix- ture of modem Qreek, German, from the Austrian ports, Spanish,. It would occupy too much space here to give a list of these words. They are all noted in the Dictionary. Speaking of the learned tongues, I may mention that, precarious and abandoned as the vagabond's existence is, many persons of classical or refined education have from time to time joined the ranks,— occasionally from inclination, as in the popular instance of Bamfylde Moore Carew, but generally through indiscretion and loss of character.

In the early part of the last century, when highwaymen were by all accounts so plentiful, a great many new words were added to the canting vocabulary, whilst several old terms fell into disuse.

Cant, for instance, as applied to thieves' talk, was supplanted by the word flash. In the North of England, the Cant employed by tramps and thieves is known as ''the gammy. In the large towns of Ireland and Scotland this secret language is also spoken. Shakspeare, or, as the French say, " the divine William," also used many words which are now counted as dreadfully vulgar. A London costermonger, or inhabitant of the streets, instead of saying, "I'll make him yield," or "give in," in a fight or contest, would say, "I'll make him buckle under.

The cant word prig, from the Saxon, priccan, to filch, is also Shakspearian ; so indeed is PIECB, a contemptuous term for a yonng woman. Shakspeare was not the only vulgar dramatist of his time. This is called Marrow- skyingy or Medical Greeks from its use by medical students at the hospitals. The subject was not long since brought under the attention of the Government by Mr Kawlinson.

Tolence which encourages and perpetuates vagabondism. Every door or passage is pregnant with instruction as to the error com- mitted by the patron of beggars; as the beggar-marks shew that a system of freemasonry is followed, by which a beggar knows whether it will be worth his while to call into a passage or knock at a door. Let any one examine the entrances to the passages in any town, and there he wiU find chalk marks, imintelligible to him, but significant enough to beggars.

If a thousand towns are examined, the same marks will be found at every passage entrance. The passage mark is a cypher with a twisted tail: In some cases there is a cross on the brick work, in others a cypher: Every person may for himself test the accuracy of these state- ments by the examination of the brick-work near his own door- way — thus demonstrating that mendicity is a regular trade, carried out upon a system calculated to save time, and realise the largest profits. One tramp thus described the method of woBEiNGt a small town.

The English practice of marking everything, and scratching names on public property, extends kself to the tribe of vagabonds. The names of the good houses are not set down in the paper fur fear of the police. Should there be no map, in most lodging-houses there is an old man who is guide to every " walk" in the vicinity, and who can tell on every round each house that is "good for a cold tatur. STOP, — If you have what they want, they will buy. Where did these signs come from, and when were they first used?

And strange it would be if some modem Belzoni, or Champollion, discovered in these beggars' marks fragments of ancient Egyptian or Hindoo hiero- glyphical writing! But this, of course, is a simple vagary of the imagination. That the Gipsies were in the habit of leaving memorials of the road they had taken, and the successes that had befiEdlen them, there can be no doubt. I cannot dose this subject without drawing attention to the extraordinary fact, that actually on the threshold of the gibbet the sign of the vagabond is to be met with!

In a popular constable's Guide, giving the practice of justices in petty sessions, I have recently met with the fallowing inter- esting paragraph, corroborating what has just been said on the hieroglyphics used by vagabonds: In the night time a olkft btiok is placed in the fence at the cross roads, with an arm pointing down the road their com- rades have taken.

The marks are always placed on the left-hand aide, so that the stragglers can easily and readily find them. Slang is the language of street humour, of fast, high, and low life. Cant, as was stated in the chapter upon that subject, is the vulgar language of secrecy. They are both universal and ancient, and appear to have been the peculiar concomitants of gay, vulgar, or worthless persons in every part of the world at every period of time.

Slang is as old as speech and the congregating together of people in cities. It is the result of crowding, and excitement, and artificial life. Even to the Classics it was not unknown, as witness the pages of Aristophanes and Plautus, Terence and Athenseus. Martial, the epigrammatist, is full of Slang. Old English Slang was coarser, and depended more upon downright vulgarity than our modem Slang.

It was a jesting speech, or humorous indulgence for the thoughtless moment, or the drunken hour, and it acted as a vent-peg for a fit of temper or irritability j but it did not interlard and permeate every de- scription of conversation as now. It was confined to nicknames and improper subjects, and encroached but to a very small extent upon the domain of authorised speecL Indeed, it was exceed- ingly limited when compared with the vast territory of Slang in such general favour and complete circulation at the present day.

Still, although not an alarming encumbrance, as in our time. Slang certainly did exist in this country centuries ago, as we may see if we look down the page of any respectable History of England. Cromwell was feuniliarly called old noll, — just the same as Bonaparte was termed boney, and Wellington conkby, or NOSEY, only a few years ago.

His Legislature, too, was spoken of in a high-flavoured way as the barebones, or rump Parliar ment, and his followers were nicknamed roundheads, and the peculiar religious sects of his protectorate were styled puritans and QUAKERS. Here is a field of inquiry for the Philological Society, indeed I may say a territory, for there are thirty thousand of these partisan tracta Later still, in the court of Charles IL, the naughty ladies and the gay lords, with Rochester at their head, talked Slang ; and very naughty Slang it was too!

One half of the coarse wit in Butler s Hudibras lurks in the vulgar words and phrases which he was so fond of employing. They were more homely and forcible than the mild and elegant sentences of Cowley, and the people, therefore, hurrahed them, and pronounced Butler one of themselves,— or, as we should say, in a joyful moment, " a jolly good fellow.

Burly Grose men- tions Henley, with the remark that we owe a great many Slang phrases to him. The worthy doctor, in order to annihilate or, as we should say, with a fitting respect to the subject under consideration, smash an opponent, thought proper on an occasion to use the word CABBAGE, not in the ancient and esculentary sense of a flatulent vegetable of the kitchen garden, but in the at once Slang sense of purloining or cribbing. Another Slang term, oull, to cheat, or delude, sometimes varied to qully, is stated to be connected with the Dean of St Patrick's.

The writers of the comedies and farces in those days must have lived in the streets, and written their plays in the public-houses, so filled are they with vulgarisms and unauthorised words. The popular phrases, " I owe you one," " That 's one for his nob,'' and " Keep moving, dad," arose in this way. The veritable Quaker, the "real Simon Pure," recommended by Aminadab Holdfast, of Bristol, as a fit sojourner with Obadiah Prim, arrives at last, to the discomfiture of the Colonel, who, to maintain his position and gain time, con- cocts a letter in which the real Quaker is spoken of as a house- breaker who had travelled in the "leather conveniency" from Bristol, and adopted the garb and name of the western Quaker in order tor pass off as the " real simon pure," but only for the purpose of robbing the house and cutting the throat of the per- plexed Obadiah.

The scene in which the two Simon Pures, the real and the counterfeit, meet, is one of the best in the comedy. Slang in those days was generally termed flash language. I have searched the venerable magazine in vain for this Slang glossary. X This is incorrect See under Fuvos in the Dictionary. Theatre, and was, without exception, the most wonderful instance of a continuous theatrical btjn in ancient or modem times.

This, also, was brimful of Slang. But before I proceed further into the region of Slang, it will be well to say something on the etymology of the word. The word Slang is only mentioned by two lexicographers — Webster and Ogilvie. The origin of the word has often been asked for in lite- rary journals and books, but only one man, as far as I can learn, has ever hazarded an etymology — Jonathan Bee, the vulgar chronicler of the prize-ring.

How far he succeeded in this latter particular, his ridiculous etymology of Slang will shew. It occurs in his Classical Dictionary of the YuLgar TongTie, of , with the signification that it im- plies " Cant or vulgar language. Hucksters and beggars on tramp, or at fairs and races, associate and frequently join in any rough enterprise with the Gipsies. Any sadden excitement, peculiar drcnmstance, or popular lite- rary production, is quite sufficient to originate and set agoing a score of Slang words.

There is scarcely a condition or calling in life that does not possess its own peculiar Slang. Every workshop, warehouse, factory, and mill throughout the country has its Slang, and so have the public schools of Eton, Harrow, and Westminster, and the great Universities of Oxford and Cambridge.

Sea Slang constitutes the principal charm of a sailor's " yarn;" and our soldiers and officers have each their peculiar nicknames and terms for things and subjects proper and improper. A writer in Household Words No. Let any person for a short time narrowly examine the conversation of their dearest and nearest friends, ay, censor-like, even slice and ana- lyse their own supposed correct talk, and they shall be amazed at the numerous unauthorised, and what we can only call vulgar, words they continually employ.

Look at those simple and useful verbs, doy ciUf gOy and tahcy and see how they are hampered and overloaded, and then let us ask ourselves how is it possible for a French or German gentleman, be he ever so well educated, to avoid con- tinually blundering and floundering amongst our little words when trying to make himself understood in an ordinary conver- sation?

He may have studied our language the required time, and have gone through the usual amount of "grinding," and practised the common allotment of patience, but all to no pur- pose as far as accuracy is concerned.

I am aware that most new words are generally regarded as Slang, although afterwards they may become useful and respectable additions to our standard dictionaries. Jabbeb and hoax were Slang and Cant terms in Swift's time ; so indeed were mob and sham.

Nothing pleases an ignorant person so much as a high-sounding term " full of fury. In the United States the vulgar-genteel even excel the poor " stuck-up" Cockneys in their formation of a native fieishionable language. Vul- gar words representing action and brisk movement often owe their origin to sound. Mispronunciation, too, is another great source of vulgar or Slang words — ramshackle, shackly, kary- ONE for neither or neither one, ottomy or atomy for anatomy, BENCH for rinse, are specimens.

The commonalty dislike fire- quently-occurring words difficult of pronunciation, and so we have the street abridgments of bimeby for by and by, gaze for because, gin for given, hankebcheb for handkerchief bumatiz for rheumatism, backy for tobacco, and many others, not perhaps Slang, but certainly all vulgarisms.

Archbishop Whately, in his interesting Remains of Bishop Copleston, has inserted a leaf from the Bishop's note-book on the popular corruption of names, menr tioning among others kickshaws, as from the French, qudques choses; beefeateb, the lubberly guardian of royalty in a pro- cession, and the supposed devourer of enormous beefsteaks, as but a vulgar pronunciation of the French, bufetier ; and oeobge and CANNON, the sign of a public-house, as nothing but a corruption although so soon!

English officers, civilians, and their families, who have resided long in India, have contributed many terms from the Hindostanee to our language.

Jungle, as a term for a forest or wilderness, is now an English phrase ; a few years past, however, it was merely the Hindostanee junkul. The extension of trade in China, and the English settlement at Hong Kong, have introduced among us several examples of Canton Jargon, that exceedingly curious Anglo-Chinese dialect spoken in the seaports of the Celestial Empire.

While these words have been carried as it were into the families of the upper and middle classes, persons in a hum- bler rank of life, through the sailors, soldiers, Lascar and Chinese beggars that haunt the metropolis, have also adopted many Anglo-Indian and Anglo-Chinese phrases. As this Dictionary would have been incomplete without them, they are all carefully recorded in its columns. Concerning the Slang of the fashion- able world, a writer in Household Words curiously, but not alto- gether truthfully, remarks, that it is mostly imported from France; and that an unmeaning gibberish of Gallicisms runs through English fashionable conversation, and fashionable novels, and accounts of fashionable parties in the fashionable newspapers.

Tet, ludicrously enough, immediately the fashionable magnates of England seize on any French idiom, the French themselves not only universally abandon it to us, but positively repudiate it altogether from their idiomatic vocabulary. If you were to tell a well-bred Frenchman that such and such an aristocratic marriage was on the tapis, he would stare with astonishment, and look down on the carpet in the startled endeavour to find a mar- riage in so unusual a place.

Comer and Chelsea Bun House. Which is the proper way to pronounce the names of great people, and what the correct authority? The mongrel formation is exceedingly amusing to a polite Parisian, t Savea-vous cela?

The pronunciation of proper names has long been an anomaly in the conversation of the upper classes of this country. A costermonger is ignorant of such a place as Birmingham, but understands you ixk a moment if you talk of Brummagem. Why do not Pall Mall join with the costermongers in this pronunciation? It is the ancient one. The Oxonian Antippodett by L B. I have often heard the cabmen on the ''ranks'' in Piccadilly remark of the late Chancellor of the Exchequer, when he has been going from his residence at Grosvenor Gkte to Derby House in St James's Square, '' Hollo, there!

The term comes from America. A job, in political phraseology, is a government office or contract obtained by secret influence or favouritism. The term bat, too, in allusion to rats deserting vessels about to sink, has long been employed towards those turncoat politicians who change their party for interest. Who that occasionally passes near the Houses of Parliament has not often noticed stout or careful M.

Inconvenient friends, or elderly imd lectur- ing relatives, are pronounced dbeadful bobes. Four-wheeled cabs are called boundebs ; and a member of the Four-in-hand Club, driving to Epsom on the Derby Day, would, using fashion- able phraseology, speak of it as tooling his dbag down to the DEBBY.

A vehicle, if not a dbao or dwag is a tbap, or a case j and if the tubn out happens to be in other than a trim condi- tion, it is pronoimced at once as not down the boad. Your City swell would say it is not up to the mabk ; whilst the costermonger would call it weby dickey. In the army a barrack or military station is known as a lobsteb-box ; to " cram " for an examination is to mttg-up ; to reject from the examination is to spin ; and that part of the barrack occupied by subalterns is frequently spoken of as the booejsby.

Horace WiJpole quotes a party nickname of Pebruary , as a Slang word ol the day: The military phrase, " to send a man to covENTRy," or permit no person to speak to him, although an ancient saying, must still be considered Slang.

The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and the great public schools, are the hotbeds of fashionable Slang. Growing boys and high-spirited young fellows detest restraint of all kinds, and prefer making a dash at life in a Slang phraseology of their own, to all the set forms and syntactical rules of Alma Mater, Many of the most expressive words in a common chit-chat, or free-and-easy conversation, are old university vulgarisms.

Cut, in the sense of dropping an acquaintance, was originally a Cam- bridge form of speech ; and hoax, to deceive or ridicule, we are informed by Grose, was many years since an Oxford term. The Slang words in use at Oxford and Cam- bridge would alone fill a volume. Charles Simeon; sloggebs, at Cambridge, refers to the second division of race boats, known at Oxford as tobpids ; spobt is to shew or exhibit ; tbotteb is the jocose term for a tailor's man who goes round for orders ; and tufts are wealthy students who dine with the DONS, and are distinguished by golden tufts, or tassels, in their caps.

For numerous other examples of college Slang the reader is referred to the Dictionary. ReligioiiB Slang, strange as the compound may appear, exists with other descriptions of vidgar speech at the present day. As stated in his Essay, the practice appears to confine itself maialy to the exaggerated forms of the High and Low Church — the Tractarians and the " Eecordites. We hear that Mr A. Again, the word geacious is invested with a meaning as extensive as that attached by young ladies to nice.

It is applied to every person, book, or place, not impregnated with Recordite principles We once were witnesses of a ludicrous misunderstanding result- ing from this phraseology. The conclusion of one of these singular evening parties is generally marked by an "exposUion" — an unseasonable sermon of nearly one hour's duration, circumscribed by no text, and delivered firom the table.

Already have these terms become so familiar that they are short- ened, in ordinary conversation, to the dry and the slow. I have observed that many young preachers strive hard to acquire this peculiar pronuncia- tion, in imitation of the older ministers.

These vagaries of speech will, perhaps, by an apologist, be termed " pulpit peculiarities," and the writer dared to inters meddle with a subject that is or should be removed from his criticisms. The terms used by the mob towards the Church, however illiberal and satirically vulgar, are within his province in such, an inquiiy as the present. His professiou is termed the cloth, and his practice tub-thumping. His chapel, too, is spoken of as a schism shop. A Eoman Catholic, I may remark, is coarsely named a bbiseet-beateb.

Particular as lawyers generally are about the meaning of words, they have not prevented an unauthorised phraseology from arising, which we may term Legal Slang.

So forcibly did this truth impress a late writer, that he wrote in a popular journal, " You may hear Slang every day in term from barristers in their robes, at every mess-table, at every bar-mess, at every college commons, and in every club dining-room.

Lawyers, firom their connexion with the police courts, and transactions with persons in every grade of flbciety, have ample opportunities for acquiring street Slang, which, in cross-questioning and wrangling, they frequently avail themselves of.

In the English newspapers the same thing is observable, and certain of them contain more of the class denominated Slang wordB than our own. A short time since 4th May he gave an original etymology of the schoolboy-ism slog.

And it was not long ago that he amused his readers with two columns on Slang and Sanscrit: Bosh, remarks Punch, after speaking of it as belonging to the stock of words pilfered from the Turks, " is one whose innate force and beauty the slangographer is reluctantly compelled to admit It is the only word which seems a proper appellation for a great deal which we are obliged to hear and to read every day of our life.

The universality of Slang, I may here remark, is proved by its continual use in the pages of Punch. The Athenoeunif the most learned and censor-like of all the " weeklies," often indulges in a Slang word, when force of expres- sion or a little humour is desired, or when the writer wishes to say something which is better said in Slang, or so-called vulgar speech, than in the authorised language of Dr Johnson or Lindley Murray.

It was but the other day that a writer in its pages employed an old and favourite word, used always when we were highly pleased with any article at school — stunning. Among the words and phrases which may be included under the head of Literary Slang are, Balaam, matter kept constantly in type about monstrous productions of nature, to fill up spaces in newspapers ; balaam-box, the term given in Blackwood to the repository for rejected articles ; and SLATE, to pelt with abuse, or cut up in a review.

A man who is occasionally hired at a trifling remuneration to come upon the stage as one of a crowd, or when a number of actors are wanted to give effect, is named a sup, — an abbreviation of " supernumerary. A ben is a benefit: A SADDLE is the additional charge made by a manager to an actor or actress upon their benefit night To mug up is to paint one's face, or arrange the person to represent a particular character ; to coepse, or to stick, is to balk, or put the other actors out in their parts by forgetting yours.

To stab it is to perform as the centre of attrac- tion, with none but subordinates and indifferent actors in the same performance. A bear is a speculator on the Exchange ; and a bctll, although of another order, follows a like professioa There is something very humor- ous and applicable in the Slang term lame dctce, a defaulter in stock-jobbing speculations. Breaking shins, in City Slang, is borrowing money ; a rotten or unsound scheme is spoken of as fishy ; " rigging the market " means plajdng tricks with it ; and stag was a conmion term during the railway mania for a speculator without capital, a seller of " scrip " in " Diddlesex Junction" and other equally safe lines.

But before I proceed further in a sketch of the different kinds of Slang, I cannot do better than speak here of the extraordinary number of Cant and Slang terms in use to represent money — from farthings to bank-notes the value of fortunes. Flyiko the kite, or obtaining money on bills and promissory-notes, is closely connected with the allegorical expression of baising the wind, which is a well-known phrase for procuring money by immediate sale, pledging, or by a forced loan.

To begin with that extremely humble coin, a farthing: Sevenpence being an uncommon amount has only one Slang eynonyme, setteb. The same remark applies to eightpence and ninepence, the former being only represented by otteb, and the latter by the Cant phrase nobba-saltee. Guineas are nearly obsolete, yet the terms neds, and half neds, are still in use. Bank-notes are flimsies, long-tailed ones, or soft. A finuf is a five-pound note. One hundred pounds, or any other " round sum,'' quietly handed over as payment for services perfonned, is callously termed "a cool hundred.

The antiquity of many of these Slang names is remarkable. The reader, too, will have remarked the frequency of animals' names as Slang terms for money. They are identical with the very name of money among the early Bomans, which was pecunia, from pecm, a flocL The collections of coin-dealers amply shew that the figure of a hog was anciently placed on a small silver coin ; and that that of a bull decorated larger ones of the same metkL These coins were frequently deeply crossed on the reverse ; this was for the convenience of easily breaking them into two or more pieces, should the bargain for which they were employed require it, and the parties making it had no smaller change handy to complete the transaction.

If he takes army contracts, it is sank work ; if he is a slop tailor, he is a springer up, and his garments are blown together. Per- quisites with him are spiffs, and remnants of cloth peaking, or cabbage.

The per-centage he allows to his assistants or counter JruMPERs on the sale of old-fashioned articles is termed tinge. If he pays his workmen in goods, or gives them tickets upon other tradesmen, with whom he shares the profit, he is soon known as a tommy master. I need scarcely remark that any credit he may give is termed tick. When belonging to the same shop or factory, they geapt there, and are beothee chips.

When out of work, they borrow a word from the flunkey vocabulary, and describe themselves as being out of collar. They term each other flints and dxtngs, if they are "society" or "non-society" men. When they quit work, they knock off ; and when out of employ, they ask if any hands are wanted.

Names of animals figure plenti- fully in the workman's vocabulary; thus we have goose, a tailor's smoothing-iron ; sheep's-foot, an iron hammer ; sow, a receptacle for molten iron, whilst the metal poured from it is termed pig. The subject is curious. Allow me to call the attention of numismatists to it. There yet remain several distinct divisions of Slang to be examined: The Irish phraset, bad scran to tee!

First, there is money, with one hundred and twenty Slang terms and synonymes ; then comes drink, from small beer to champagne ; and next, as a very natural sequence, intoxicattan, and fuddlement generally, with some half a hundred vulgar terms, graduating the scale of drunkenness from a slight inebriation, to the soaky state of gutterdom and stretcherdom, — I pray the reader to forgive the expressions.

Slcmg derivaHonM are generally indireet, turning upon metaphor amd fandful aUutione, and other than direct etymological connexion. Such aUuaiom and fandee are eeaentiaUy temporary or local; they rapidly past out of the public mind: They are well described imder the title of Bedlam Beggars.

It appears to have been the practice in former days to allow certain inmates of Bethlehem Hospital to have fixed days " to go begging;" hence impostors were said to '' sham Abraham " the Abraham Ward in Bedlam having for its inmates these mendicant lunatics when they pretended they were licensed beggars in behalf of the hospital. Abandannad, "an abandannad abandoned boy," is one who picks pockets of bandanna handkerchiefs.

They are also, from a supposed resemblance in form, termed newoate knookebs, which see. ALLS, tap-droppings, refuse spirits sold at a cheap rate in gin-palaces.

An artisan would use the same phrase to express the capa- bilities of a skilful fellow-workman. Sometimes all the way there. APOSTLES, The Twelve, the last twelve names on the Poll, or " Ordinary Degree " List at the Cambridge Examinations, when it was arranged in oider of merit, and not alphabetically, and in classes, as at present ; so called from there being post alies, after the others. And almost every vice, almightie gold.

One of the sheets is remoyed, and the other is doubled in the middle, so that both edges are brought to the top, and look as if both sheets were there ; but the unhappy occupant is prevented getting more than half way down, and his night's rest is in all probability spoiled.

ATOMT, a diminutive or deformed person. AUNT SALLT, a favourite game on race-courses and at fairs, consisting of a wooden head mounted on a stick, firmly fixed in the ground ; in the nose of which, or rather in that part of the facial arrangement of AUNT BALLT whlch is generally considered incomplete without a nasal projection, a tobacco pipe is inserted.

The Duke of Beaufort is a "crack hand" at smashing pipe noses; and his performances a few years ago on Brighton race-course are yet fresh in remembrance. Aunt Sally proprietors are indebted to the noble duke for having brought the game into fashionable notoriety. AVAST, a sailor's phrase for stop, shut up, go away, — apparently connected with the old Cant, btnge a waste ; or from the Italian, basta, hold I enough.

The phrase wide awake carries the same meaning in ordinary conversation. AWFUL, or, with the Cockneys, obful, a senseless expletive, used to in- tensify a description of anything good or bad; " what an awful fine woman 1 " i. French term for Slang. Autumn, a Slang term for an execution by hanging. AT AH, a lady's-maid or nurse. Babes exist in Baltimore, U. Meta- phor boiTowed from the stables. Also a drink out of turn, as when a greedy person delays the decanter to get a second glass. BACKEBy one who bets, or ''lays" his money, on a favourite horse; a one- sided supporter in a contest.

Virgil has an exactly similar phrase, in jKJvs mere. Badminton proper is made of claret, sugar, spice, and cucumber peel iced, and is used by the Prize Ring as a cfynonyme for blood out of compliment to a well-known patron.

BAKE, " he's only half bakxd," i,e. This consists of thirteen or fourteen; the surplus number, called the inbread, being thrown in for fear of incurring the penalty for short weight. To " give a man a bakeb's dozen," in a Slang sense, means to give him an extra good beating or pummelling. The term balaam-box has long been used in BUbckwood as the name of the depository for rejected articles. Evi- dently from Numbers xxiL 80, and denoting the " speech of an ass," or any story difficult of deglutition, not contained in Scripture.

Back Jump, a back window. Also, still more coarsely, '' bladdeb-ov-lard. The probability is that a nobleman first uted it in polite society. BANDY, or oriffle, a sixpence, so called from this coin being generally bent or crooked; old term for flimsy or bad doth, temp. BANK, to put in a place of safety. Hence a marine term for goggles, which they resemble in shape, and for which they are used by sailors in case of ophthalmio derangement.

Babkinq-Ibon, a pistoL Term used by footpads. Miege calls it " a sort of stuff; " Old French, babacan. BASH, to beat, thrash ; ''bashing a donna," beating a woman; originally a provincial word, and chiefly applied to the practice of beating walnut trees, when in bud, with long poles, to increase their productiveness. The more you bash 'em, the better they be. Also, a sewing term. Formerly used to denote a prison, or "lock-up;" but its abbreviated form, steel, is now the favourite expression with the lower orders.

BAT, " on his own bat," on his own account — See hook. BATS, a pair of bad boots. Used metaphorically as early as BEAK, a magistrate, judge, or policeman ; " to baffle the beak," to get re- manded.

Saxon, beag, a necklace or gold col- lar — emblem of authority. Sir John Fielding was called the blind- beak in the last century. Beakeb-Huhtsb, a stealer of poultiy. BEAR, one who contracts to deliver or sell a certain quantity of stock in the public funds on a forthcoming day at a stated place, but who does not possess it, trusting to a decline in public securities to enable him to ftdfil the agreement and realise a profit. Both words are Slang terms on the Stock Exchange, and are frequently used in the business columns of newspapers.

The contract was merely a wager, to be determined by the rise or fall of stock ; if it rose, the seller paid the difference to the buyer, pro- rdoned to the sum determined by the same oomputaticm to the seller. BEAT, the allotted range traversed by a policeman on duty. BEAT, or beat-hollow, to surpass or excel ; also " beat into fits. Originally bed-staff, a stick placed vertically in the frame of a bed to keep the bedding in its place.

This was used sometimes as a defensive weapon. BEE, " to have a bee in one's bonnet," i. BEEFY, unduly thick or fat, commonly said of women's ancles. BEERY, intoxicated, or fuddled with beer. The expression was first used in one of Mr Leech's caricatures in Punch. Bellowser, a blow in the " wind," or pit of the stomach ; taking one's breath away. BEND, "that's above my bend," i,e. Also an ironical exclamation similar to walker!

Formerly termed a Joseph, in allusion, perhaps, to Joseph's coat of many colours. Bested, taken in, or defrauded. Bbstbb, a low betting cheat. See book, and book-makino.

Bnr Cull, a friend, or " p8l. BILBO, a sword ; abbrev. Formerly in general use, now confined to the streets, where it is very common. Not many years since, one of the London notorieties was to heai the fishwomen at Billingsgate abuse each other. The anecdote of Dr Johnson and the BilUngsgate yirago is well known. BILLY, a silk pocket-handkerchief. Blub billy, blue ground with white spots. Cream vanot, any pattern on a white ground. Green king's man, any pattern on a green ground. Bandal's man, green, with white spots; named after Jack Randal, pugilist.

Yellow fancy, yellow, with white spots. Yellow man, all yellow. Occasionally he came out with real witticisms. He was a well-known street character about the east end of London, and died in Whitechapel Workhouse. BING Y, a term largely used in the butter trade to denote bad ropy butter; nearly equivalent to vinnied. Billy-hunting, buying old metal — See billy-fenceb. Charles Bannister, the witty singer and actor, one day meet- ing a Bow -Street runner with a man in custody, asked what the prisoner had done ; and being told that he had stolen a bridle, and had been detected in the act of selling it, said, '' Ah 1 then, he wanted to touch the bit.

BITE, a cheat ; '' a Yorkshire bite," a cheating fellow from that county. Origin- ally a Gipsy term. If a north countryman be asked the distance to a place, he will most probably reply, " a mile and a bittock; " and the latter may be considered any distance from one hundred yards to ten mUes 1 B. Military officers in mufti, when out on a spree, and not wishing their profession to be known, speak of their barracks as the B.

In Suffolk, the afternoon refreshment of reapers is called beyer. It is also an old English term. The derivation of this term was solemnly argued before the full court of Queen's Bench, upon a motion for a new trial for libel, but was not decided by the learned tribunal Probably it is from the custom of sporting and turf men wearing black top-hoots.

Hence blaok-lsg came to be the phrase for a professional sporting man. Bit, a purse, or any sum of money. Mr QifiFord, however, in his late edition of Ben Jonson's worlcs, assigns an origin of the name different from what the old examples which I have cited seem to countenance. To this smutty regiment, who attended the progresses, and rode in the carts with the pots and kettles, which, with every other article of furniture, were then moved trova palace to palace, the people, in derision, gave the name of black gwirdsi a term since become sufficiently familiar, and never properly explained.

BLADE, a man — in ancient times the term for a soldier; "knowing bladb," a wide-awake, sharp, or cunning man. A castle in the county of Cork. Bladh is also flattery; hence the connexion. Originally a Military expression. Also as applied to the brilliant habiliments of flunkeys. BLEED, to victimise, or extract money from a person, to sponge on, to make suffer vindictively.

BLIND, a pretence, or make-believe. Blink-vsncbr, a person who sells spectacles. Qvpsy and Hindoo, loks. North, bloaoheb, any large a-nima.! BLOOD, a fast or high-mettled man. Nearly obsolete in the sense in which it was used in Qeorge the Fourth's time. It will hb sufficient to quote the answer of the butcher: BLOW UP, to make a noise, or scold ; formerly a Cant expression used amongst thieves, now a recognised and respectable phrase.

Blowing UP, a jobation, a scolding. Blob, from blab, to talk. Beggars are of two kinds, — those who BOBEEYE, introduce themselves with a fakement, or false document, and those who blob, or state their case in their own truly " unvar- nished " language.

In America, "to blow" is Slang for to taunt Bloweb, a girl; a contemptuous name in opposition to jomeb. When the conversation hajs assumed an entirely opposite character, it is then said to be bbown, or Quakerish. BLUE, confoimded or surprised; " to look blue," to be astonished or disap: Before a " set to," it is common to take it from the neck and tie it round the leg as a garter, or round the waist, to "keep in the wind.

It is singular that this well-known Slang term for a London constable should have been used by Shahspeare. BLUES, a fit of despondency. BLUFF, an excuse ; more frequently used as an adjective, in the sense of rough, coarse, plain-spoken. BLUFF, to turn aside, stop, or excuse. Sometimes tiiey get off with it by wrapping it round their bodies.

It has been said that this term is from the French blokd, sandy or golden colour, and that a parallel may be found in brown or BROWNS, the slang for halfpence. Far-fetched as this etymology may be, it is doubtless correct, as it is borne out by the analogy of similar expressions. Formerly bobstiok, which may have been the originaL Bob-a-nob, a shilling a-head. Walpole, as Joey is with Joseph Hume? BOB IT, drop it, give it up. Both bobby and peeler were nicknames given to the new police, in allusion to the Christian and surnames of the late Sir Robert Ped, who was the prime mover in effecting their introduction and improvement.

The term bobby is, however, older than the Saturday Reviewer imagines. The official square-keeper, who is always armed with a cane to drive away idle and disorderly urchins, has, time out of mind, been called by the said urchins, bobby the Beadle. Bobby is also, I may remark, an old English word for striking or hitting, a quality not unknown to policemen. In the Inns of Court, I am informed, the term is very common. BOLT, to run away, decamp, or abscond. BOLT, to swallow without chewing.

BONE, to steal or appropriate what does not belong to you. Also, a pretence, or make-believe, a sham bidder at auctions, one who metaphorically blhids or bonnets others.

Books are sometimes used. BOOK, an arrangement of bets for and against, chronicled in a pocket-book made for that purpose; '' making a book upon it," a common phrase to denote the general arrangement of a person's bets on a race. Bone-grubber, a person who hunts dust-holes, gutters, and all likely spots for refuse bones, which he selis at the rag-shops, or to the bone- grinders.

Tenn used by professional card-players. BOOM, '' to top one's boom off," to be off, or start in a certain direction. Booze, or suok-oasa, a public-house. The term is an old one. Harman, in Queen Elizabeth's days, speaks of '' bousino or boozing and belly-cheere. BORE, a troublesome friend or acquaintance, a nuisance, anything which wearies or annoys, so called from his unvaried and pertinacious push- ing. The Oraaus ad Cantabrtgiam suggests the derivation of bobe from the Greek Bdpos, a burden.

Not so, burly Grose, the term is still in favour, and is as piquant and expressive as ever. A person, in the Saturday Review, has stated that bosh 18 coeval with Morier's novel, Hadji Bahi, which was pub- lished in ; but this is a blunder.

The term was used in this country as early as , and may be found in the Student, vol. Grose baa a singular derivation, bother, or both-eared, from two persons talking at the same time, or to both ears. Blotheb, an old word, signifying to chatter idly. Slang term for Lord Pal- merston, derived from a speech he made some years ago when foreign secretary, in which he described himself as acting the part of a judicious "bottle-holder" among the foreign powers. A lately-invented in- strument to hold a bottle has thus received the name of a palmerston.

Power to stand fatigue ; endurance to receive a good beating, and still fight on. Lucus a non Iticendot Also a University term for a trap. Evidently a corruption of beau-oatoheb. In old times this was called a lovelock, when it was the mark at which all the Puritan and ranting preachers levelled their pulpit pop-guns, loaded with sharp and virulent abuse.

Terms only used by the lower orders. Ancient — See ken. BosMAN, a farmer; " faking a bosman on the main toby," robbing a farmer on the highway. It is now understood that the muci- lage of quince seed is used by the ladies for this purpose. When men twist the hair on each side of their faces into ropes they are sometimes called bell-bofes, as being wherewith to draw the belles.

Whether bell-ropes or bow-oatohers, it is singular they should form part of the prisoner's paraphernalia, and that a janty little kiss-me- quick curl should, of all thiiigs in the world, ornament a jail dock ; yet such was formerly the case.

Toung ladies, think of this! The method used at sea to learn boys the points of the mariner's compass. Properly a small kind of nails used by cobblers. Bbaoe up, to pawn stolen goods.

Bracelets, handcufik Bbad-faking, playing at cards. Bbaooaoooio, three months' imprisonment as a reputed thief or old offen- der, — sometimes termed a dose, or a dollop. Properly, Bremt, bband, or Fire-new, i. In some artillery-men stationed at Norwich were directed to prove some brass ordnance belonging to the city. To the report delivered to the corporation was appended this note: B, — It is customary for the corporal to have the old metal when any of the pieces burst.

Quarks in his EwJblems says: Are my bones brazil or my flesh of oak? Five-and-twenty is the price, but yer shall have them for BREEF, probably identical with bbdsf, q. When you cut to your adversary cut at the ends, and thffli it is a chance if you cut him an honour, because the cards at the ends are all of a length. Thus you may make breeflB end-ways, as well as side- ways. BRICK, a " jolly good fellow ;" " a regular brick," a staunch fellow.

And taught them to eschew all their addresses to the Queen. Said to be derived from an expression of Aristotle's — Terpayavos dvrjp. Used in France as well as in England, and termed in the Parisian Argot fairs le font. BRIEF, a pawnbroker's duplicate. Derived from the following: From the German, briefs, which Baron Heinecken says was the name given to the cards manufactured at Ulm.

English translation, by J. Also, bbothxb-whip, a fellow coach- man: Very common even in educated society, but hardly admissible in writing, and therefore considered a vulgarisuL It is derived, by a writer in Notes and Queries, from brow study, and he cites the old German braun, or aug-braun, an eye-brow.

BRUSH, a fox's tail, a house-painter. BRUSH, or brush-ofp, to run away, or move on. BUB, a teat, woman's breast, plural bubbies ; no doubt from bibe. Brown pafermen, low gamblers. Brum, a counterfeit coin. Corruption of Brummagem, Bromwicham, the ancient name of Birmingham, me great emporium for plated goods and imitation jewellery.

I ; and Halliwell says that " the commentators do not supply another example. Over all India, and the East generally, the natives lose no opportunity of asking for buckshish. The usage is such a complete nuisance, that the word is sometimes answered with a blow ; this is termed bamboo buckshish.

BUDGE, to move, to inform, to split, or tell tales. BUFF, the bare skin ; "stripped to the buff. In 1 73 7, a buffer was a "rogue that killed good sound horses for the sake of their skins, by running a long wire into them. The term was once applied to those who took false oaths for a consideration. Oei-man, buffbl- hauft, buffalo-headed. Occurs in Plautui Comedies made English, BUGGY, a gig, or light chaise. Common term in America and in India.

Bubblet-jock, a turkey, or silly boasting fellow ; a prig. In the north of England the bird is called a bobble-cock. Both names no doubt from its cry. Budge, strong drink; budgt, drunk; budging-ken, a public-house; " cove of the budging-ken," the landlord. Probably a corruption of booze. Set BEAR, who is the opposite of a bull, the former selling, the latter pur- chasing — the one operating for a faXl or a puU down, whilst the other operates for a rite or tou up.

BULL, a crown-piece, formerly bull's etb. The result is drunk by sailors in default of something stronger. BULLY, a braggart; but in the language of the streets, a man of the most degraded morals, who protects fallen females, and lives off their miser- able earnings. BUM, the part on which we sit — STiahspeare.

JBlackstone says it is a corruption of " bound bailiff. Adopted from Dickens's character in Oliver Twist. This and "bumbledom " are now common. Their skins were formerly in great request — Whence the term bxtff meaning in old English to skin. In Irish Cant, buffer is a boxer. The buffer of a railway carriage doubtless received its very appropriate name from the old pugilistic application of this term.

The player rolls a stone ball from the higher end, and according to the number of the hole it falls into the game is counted.

It is undoubtedly the very ancient game of Trovle-in-nuidame. BUM-BOAT, a shore boat which supplies ships with provisions, and serves as means of communication between the sailors and the shore.

This term is given to a class of speculating salesmen at Billingsgate market, not recognised as such by the trade, but who get a living by buying large quantities of fish from the salesmen and re-sell- ing them to smaller buyers. The word has been used in the statutes and bye-laws of the market for upwards of aoo years. It has been variously derived. Franc, The bummarees are accused of many trade tricks. One of them is to blow up cod-fish with a pipe until they look double their actual size.

Of course when the fish come to table they are flabby, sunken, and half dwindled away. Robinson's '' Office," over against Threadneedle Street, was this: BUNDLING, a custom in Wales, and now frequently in America, of men and women sleeping, where the divisions of the house will not permit of better or more decent accommodation, with all their clothes on. BUNQ, the landlord of a public-house.

BUNG, to give, pass, hand over, drink, or indeed to perform any action. Also, to deceive one by a lie, to cram, which tee. The expression arose from a speech made by a North Carolina Senator. Prob- ably a comiption of bonus, bone, being the Slang for good.

Bunoe, OroM gives as the Cant word for money. Every prison has a nickname of this Idnd, either from the name of the Governor, or from some local circumstance. BURKE, to kill, to murder, secretly and without noise, by means of strangulation.

The wretches having been apprehended and tried, Burke was executed, while Hare, having turned king's evidence, was released. Bishop was their London imitator. Also, a kiss, abbrev. The task would have been a difficult one. Many words which were once Cant are Slang now. The words peig and cove are in- stances in point. Once Cant and secret terms, they are now only street vulgarisms.

The etymologies attempted are only given as contribu- tions to the subject, and the derivation of no vidgax term is guaranteed. The origin of many street-words will, per- haps, never be discovered, having commenced with a knot of illiterate persons, and spread amongst a public that cared not a iig for the history of the word, so long as it came to their tongues to give a vulgar piquancy to a joke, or relish to an exceedingly familiar conversation.

The references and authorities given in italics frequently shew only the direction or probable source of the etymology. The author, to avoid tedious verbiage, was obliged, in so small a work, to be curt in his notes and suggestions.

The makers of our large diction- aries have been exceedingly crotchety in their choice of what they considered respectable words. It is amusiag to know that Eichardson used the word HUMBUG to explain the sense of other words, but omitted it in the alphabetical arrangement as not sufficiently respectable and ancient.

The word Slang, too, he served in the same way. For want of decency is want of sense. I believe I have, for the first time, ia consecutive order, added at least words to the previous stock, — vulgar and often very objectionable, but stiU terms in every- day use, and employed by thousands. It is not generally known, that the polite Lord Chesterfield once desired Dr Johnson to compile a Slang Dictionary; indeed, it was Chesterfield, some say, who first used the word humbug.

Words, like pectiliar styles of dress, get into public favour, and come and go in fashion. When great favourites and universal they truly become " household words," although generally considered Slang, when their origin or ante- cedents are inquired into. A few errors of the press, I am sorry to say, may be noticed ; but, considering the novelty of the subject, and the fact that no fixed orthography of vulgar speech exists, it will, I hope, be deemed a not uninteresting essay on a new and very singular branch of human inquiry ; for, as Mayhew remarks, " the whole subject of Cant and Slang is, to the philologist, replete with interest of the most pro- found character.

The First Edition of this work had a rapid sale, and within a few weeks after it was published, the entire issue passed from the publisher's shelves into the hands of the public. A Second Edition, although urgently called for, was not immediately attempted. The First had been foimd incom- plete, and faulty in many respects, and the author deter- mined thoroughly to revise and recast before again going to press. The present Edition, therefore, will be found much more complete than the First; indeed, I may say that it has been entirely re-written, and that, whereas the First contained but words, this gives nearly , with a mass of fresh illustrations, and extended articles on the more important Slang terms — humbug, for instance.

The notices of a Lingua Franca element in the language of London vagabonds are peculiar to this Edition. My best thanks are due to several correspondents for valuable hints and suggestions as to the probable etymo- logies of various colloquial expressions. One Kterary journal of high repute recommended a division of Cant from Slang; but the annoyance of two indices in a small work appeared to me to more than coun- terbalance the benefit of a stricter pliilological classification, so I have for the present adhered to the old arrangement ; indeed, to separate Cant from Slang would be almost im- possible.

High and Low— Slang in Parliament, and amongst our friends — New words not so reprehensible as old words bur- dened with strange meanings — The poor Foreigner's perplexity — Long and windy Slang words — Vulgar corruptions,.

Cant and Slang are universal and world-wide. Nearly every nation on the face of the globe, polite and bar- barous, may be divided into two portions, the stationary and the wandering, the civilised and the uncivilised, the respectable and the scoundrel, — those who have fixed abodes and avaU themselves of the refinements of civilisation, and those who go from place to place picking up a precarious livelihood by petty sales, begging, or theft. This peculiarity is to be observed amongst the heathen tribes of the southern hemisphere, as well as in the oldest and most refined countries of Europe.

As Mayhew very pertinently ' remarks, " It would appear, that not only are all races divisible into wanderers and settlers, but that each civilised or settled tribe has generally some wandering horde intermingled with and in a measure preying upon it. In South America, and among the islands of the Pacific, matters are pretty much the same. Sleek and fat rascals, with not much inclination towards honesty, fatten, or rather fasten, like body insects, upon other rascals, who would be equally sleek and fat but for their vagabond dependents.

Personal observation, and a little research into books, enable me to mark these external traits. The secret jargon, or rude speech, of the vagabonds who hang upon the Hottentots is termed Guze-cat. In Finland, the fellows who steal seal-skins, pick the pockets of bear-skin overcoats, and talk Cant, are termed Lappes. In France, the secret language of highwaymen, housebreakers, and pickpockets is named Argot. RothwaUch, from Rater, beggar, vagabond, and wdhck, foreign.

In England, as we all know, it is called Cant — often improperly Slang. Most nations, then, may boast, or rather lament, a vulgar tongue — formed principally from the national language — the hereditary property of thieves, tramps, and beggars, — the pests of civilised communities. The formation of these secret tongues vary, of course, with the circumstances surrounding the speakers. It affords a remarkable instance of hng-ual contrivance, which, without the introduction of much arbitrary matter, has developed a system of communicating ideas, having all the advantages of a foreign language.

Since Master Cant's time it has been understood in a larger sense, and signifies all exclamations, -whinings, unusual tones, and, in fine, all praying and preaching like the unlearned of the Presbyterians. It was the custom in Addison's time to have a fling at the true-blue Presbyterians, and the mention made by Whitelocke of Andrew Cant, a fanatical Scotch preacher, and the squib upon the same worthy, in Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence Displayed, may probably have started the whimsical etymology.

As far as we are concerned, however, in the present inquiry. Cant was derived from chaunt, a beggar's whine ; chaunting being the recognised term amongst beggars to this day for begging orations and street whinings ; and chauntee, a street talker and tramp, the very term still used by strollers and patterers. Cant, apart from religious hypocrisy, refers to the old secret language, by allegory or distinct terms, of Gipsies, thieves, tramps, and beggars.

To illustrate the difference: Cant was formed for purposes of secrecy. Slang is indulged in from a desire to appear familiar with life, gaiety, town-humour, and with the transient nicknames and street jokes of the day.

Both Cant and Slang, I am aware, are often huddled together as synonymes ; but they are distinct terms, and as such should be used. To the Gipsies beggars and thieves are undoubtedly indebted for their Cant language. They came here with aU their old Eastern arts of palmistry, fortune - telling, doubling money by incantation and burial, — shreds of pagan idolatry; and they brought with them, also, the dishonesty of the lower caste of Asiatics, and the vagabondism they had acquired since leaving their ancient dwelling-places in the East many centuries before.

Vagabondism is peculiarly catching. The idle, the vagrant, and the criminal outcasts of society, caught an idea fi-om the so-called Egyptians — soon corrupted to Gipsies.

They learned from them how to tramp, sleep under hedges and trees, to tell fortunes, and find stolen property for a consideration — frequently, as the saying runs, before it was lost They also learned the value and application of a secret tongue; indeed, aU the accompaniments of maunding and imposture, except thieving and begging, which were well known in this country long before the Gipsies paid it a visit, — perhaps the only negative good that can be said in their favour.

Harman, in , wrote a singular, not to say droll, book, entitled, A Caveat for commen Cvrsetors, vulgarly called Vaga- bones, newly augmented and inlarged, wherein the history and various descriptions of rogues and vagabonds are given, together with their canting tongue.

This book, the earliest of the kind, gives the singular fact that within a dozen years after the landing of the Gipsies, companies of English vagrants were formed, places of meeting appointed, districts for plunder and begging operations marked out, and rules agreed to for their common management In some cases Gipsies joined the English gangs ; in others, English vagrants joined the Gipsies. The common people, too, soon began to consider them as of one family, — all rogues, and from Egjrpt.

The Gipsies, also, found the same difficulty with the English language. A rude, rough, and most singular compromise was made, and a mixture of Gipsy, Old English, newly-coined words, and cribbings from any foreign, and there- fcwe secret language, mixed and jumbled together, formed what has ever since been known as the canting language, or ped- LAEs' FRENCH ; or, during the past century, st Giles's geeek.

Such was the origin of Cant ; and in illustration of its blend- ing with the Gipsy or Cingari tongue, dusky and Oriental from the sunny plains of Central Asia, I am enabled to give the accompanying list of Gipsy, and often Hindoo, words, with, in many instances, their English adoptions: BOSH, rubbish, nonsense, offal.

CUTA, a gold coin. DADE, or Dadi, a father. GAD, or Gadsi, a wife. DADDY, nursery term for father. Dad, in Welsh, also signifies a father. MAM I, a grandmother.

MANQ, or Mauno, to beg. Gipsy, MU, the mouth. MULL, to spoil or destroy. CUR, a mean or dishonest man.

MOO, or Mtjn, the mouth. MULL, to spoil, or bungle. PAL, a partner, or relation. RIG, a frolic, or " spree. RUM, a good man, or thing. RUMY, a good woman or girl. SLANG, low, vulgar, unauthorised language. Here, then, we have the remarkable fact of several words of pure Gipsy and Asiatic origin going the round of Europe, passing into this country before the Reformation, and coming down to ua through numerous generations purely in the mouths of the people.

They have seldom been written or used in books, and simply as vulgarisms have they reached our time. The word jockey, as applied to a dealer or rider of horses, came from the Gipsy, and means in that language a whip.

Our standard dictionaries give, of course, none but conjectural etymologies. It is not in the old dictionaries, although extensively used in familiar or popular language for the last two centuries ; in fact, the very word that Swift, Butler, L'Estrange, and Arbuthnot would pick out at once as a telling and most serviceable term. It is, as we have seen, from the Gipsy ; and here I must state that it was Boucher who first drew attention to the fact, although in his remarks on the dusky tongue he has made a ridiculous mistake by concluding it to be identical with its offspring, Cant.

Other parallel instances, with but slight variations from the old Gipsy meanings, could be mentioned ; but sufficient examples have been adduced to shew that Marsden, the great Oriental scholar in the last century, when he declared before the Society of Anti- quaries that the Cant of English thieves and beggars had nothing to do with the language spoken by the despised Gipsies, was in error. Had the Gipsy tongue been analysed and committed to writing three centuries ago, there is every probability that many scores of words now in common use could be at once traced to its source.

Instances continually occur now-a-days of street vulgar- isms ascending to the drawing-rooms of respectable society. European fraud became sharpened by coming into contact with Asiatic craft ; whilst European tongues, by im- perceptible degrees, became recruited vnth various words, some of them wonderfully expressive many of which have long been stumbling-blocks to the philologist, who, whilst stigmatising them as words of mere vulgar invention, or of unknown origin, has been far from dreaming that a little more research or reflection would have proved their affinity to the Sclavonic, Persian, or Eomaic, or perhaps to the mysterious object of his veneration, the Sanscrit, the sacred tongue of the palm-covered regions of Ind; words originally introduced into Europe by objects too miserable to occupy for a moment his lettered attention, — the despised denizens of the tents of Roma.

On the Continent they received better attention at the hands of learned men. Grellman, a learned German, was their principal historian, and to him we are almost entirely indebted for the little we know of their language.

Cogalniceano, in his Essai sur les Cigains de la Moldo- Valachie, estimates them at , Not a few of our ancient and modem Cant and Slang terms are WaUachian and Greek words, brought in by these wanderers from the East. Gipsy, then, started, and partially merged into Cant ; and the old story told by Harrison and others, that the first inventor of canting was hanged for his pains, would seem to be a fable, for jargon as it is, it was, doubtless, of gradual formation, like all other languages or systems of speech.

The Gipsies at the pres- ent day all know the old Cant words, as well as their own tongue, — or rather what remains of it. Ancient English cant has considerably altered since the first dictionary was compiled by Harman in A great many words are unknown in the present tramps' and thieves' vernacular.

Some of them, however, bear stiU their old definitions, while others have adopted fresh meanings, — to escape detection, I sup- pose. A " bowsing ken " was the old Cant term for a public-house ; and boozing ken, in modem Cant, has precisely the same meaning. Three centuries ago, if one beggar said anything disagreeable to another, the person annoyed would say, " STOW you," or hold your peace ; low people now say, stow IT, equivalent to " be quiet" " Teine" is still to hang; " wyx" yet stands for a penny.

And many other words, as wiU be seen in the Dictionary, still retain their ancient meaning. Cheat now-a-days means to defraud or swindle, and lexicographers have tortured etymology for an original — but without success.

Escheats and escheatours have been named, but with great doubts; indeed, Stevens, the learned commentator on Shakspeare, acknowledged that he " did not recollect to have met with the word cheat in our ancient writers. Rum now means curious, and is synonymous with queer; thus, — a " EUMMY old fellow," or a " queer old man. Other instances could be pointed out. Several words are entirely obsolete. Indeed, as Tom Moore somewhere remarks, the present Greeks of St Giles's, themselves, would be thoroughly puzzled by many of the ancient canting songs, — taking, for example, the first verse of an old favourite — " Bing out, bien Morta, and toure and toure, Bing out, bien Morts, and toure ; For all your duds are bing'd awast ; The bien cove hath the loure.

As before mentioned, it was the work of one Thomas Harman, a gentleman who lived in the days of Queen Elizabeth. Some noentioned anywhere as a respectable term before ? If not, it had a vulgar or Cant introduction into this country. OA, A tinker's budget is from the same source. Go out, good girls, and see ; For all your clothes are carried away.

And the srood man has the money. All these statements are equally incorrect, for the first attempt was made more than a century before the latter work was issued.

The quaint spelling and old-fashioned phrase- ology are preserved, and the reader will quickly detect many vulgar street words, old acquaintances, dressed in antique garb. BECK, [Beek,] a constable. BUFE, [buffer, a man,] a dogge. Borrow ftirther commits himself by remarking that " Head's Vocabulary has always been accepted as the speech of the English Gipsies.

Head professed to have lived with the Gipsies, but in reality filched his words from Decker and Brome. CHETE, [see what has been previously said about this word. COFE, [cove,] a person. DELL, a yonge wench.

DUDES, [or dudds,] clothes. GYGER, [jigger,] a dore. LAP, butter, mylke, or whej. L YOKE, [lick,] to beate. LYP, to lie down. MAKE, [mag,] a halfpenny. NAB, [nob,] a heade. They are mostly Welshmen, Harman says. ROME, goode, [now curious, noted, or remarkable in any way. Rum is the modem orthography. SLATE, a sheete or shetes. Harman relates that when an upright man, or initiated first-class rogue, " mete any beggar, whether he be sturdy or impotent, he will demand of him whether ever he was 'stalled to the roge' or no.

If he say he was, he will know of whom, and his name yt stalled him. Then dooth this upright man call for a gage of bowse, which is a quarte potte of drink, and powres the same vpon his peld pate, adding these words, — I, 0.

W YN, a penny. See other examples under Blunt, in the Dictionary ; cf. Turning our attention more to the Cant of modem times, in connexion with the old, we find that words have been drawn into the thieves' vocabulary from every conceivable source.

Hard or infrequent words, vulgarly termed crack-jaw, or jaw-breakers, were very often used and considered as Cant terms. And here it should be mentioned that at the present day the most inconsistent and far-fetched terms are often used for secret purposes, when they are known to be caviare to the million.

They are inserted not as jokes or squibs, but as selections from the veritable pocket dictionaries of the Jack Sheppards and Dick Turpins of the day. If they were safely used as unknown and cabalistic terms amongst the commonalty, the fact would form a very curious illustration of the ignorance of our poor ancestors. One piece of information is conveyed to us — i. The Canting Dictionary was afterwards reprinted, word for word, with the title of Tlu.

Scoundnlg IHctionary, in It was originally published, without date, about the year by Bw E. Haeman was the first author who specially wrote against English vagabonds, and for his trouble his name became synonymous with a pair of stocks, or a policeman of the olden time. Apart from the Gipsy element, we find that Cant abounds in terms from foreign languages, and that it exhibits the growth of most recognised and completely-formed tongues, — the gathering of words from foreign sources.

In the reign of Elizabeth and of King James I. Many of these were soon picked up and adopted by vagabonds and tramps in their Cant language. The Anglo- Norman and the Anglo-Saxon, the Scotch, the French, the Italian, and even the classic languages of ancient Italy and Greece, have contributed to its list of words, besides the various provincial dialects of England. Indeed, as Mayhew remarks, English Cant seems to be formed on the same basis as the Argot of the French and the Roih-Sprcec of the Germans, — partly meta- phorical, and partly by the introduction of such corrupted foreign terms as are likely to be unknown to the society amid which the Cant speakers exist.

Booze, or bouse, I am reminded by a friendly corre- spondent, comes from the Dutch buysen. Domine, a parson, is from the SpanisL Donna and feeles, a woman and children, is from the Latin ; and don, a clever fellow, has been filched from the Lingua Franca, or bastard Italian, although it sounds like an odd mixture of Spanish and French ; whilst dudds, the vulgar term for clothes, may have been pilfered either from the Gaelic or the Dutch.

So are gent, silver, from the French Argent; and viai, a country town, also from the French. Horeid-horn, a fool, is believed to be from the Erse ; and gloak, a man, from the Scotch.

As stated before, the Dictionary will supply numerous other instances. These have come to us through the Gaelic or Irish languages, so closely allied in their material as to be merely dialects of a primitive common tongue. This element may be from the Celtic population, which, from its ancient position as slaves or servants to the Anglo-Saxon conquerors, has contributed so largely to the lowest class of our population, and therefore to our Slang, provincial, or colloquial words ; or it may be an importation from Irish immigrants, who have undoubtedly contributed very largely to our criminal population.

There is one source, however, of secret street terms, which in the first edition of this work was entirely overlooked, — indeed, it was unknown to the editor until pointed out by a friendly correspondent, — the Lingua Franca, or bastard Italian, spoken at Genoa, Trieste, Malta, Constantinople, Smyrna, Alexandria, and all Mediterranean seaport towns.

The ingredients of this imported Cant are many. It would occupy too much space here to give a list of these words. They are all noted in the Dictionary. Speaking of the learned tongues, I may mention that, precarious and abandoned as the vagabond's existence is, many persons of classical or refined education have from time to time joined the ranks, — occasionally from inclination, as in the popular instance of Bamfylde Moore Carew, but generally through indiscretion and loss of character, t This wUl in some measure account for numerous classical and learned words figuring as Cant terms in the vulgar Dictionary.

In the early part of the last century, when highwaymen were by all accounts so plentiful, a great many new words were added to the canting vocabulary, whilst several old terms fell into disuse. Cant, for instance, as applied to thieves' talk, was supplanted by the word flash. In the North of England, the Cant employed by tramps and thieves is known as " the gammy.

In the large towns of Ireland and Scotland this secret language is also spoken. All those words derived from " the gammy " are inserted in the Dictionary as from the " North Country.

Disraeli somewhere says, " The purest source of neology is in the revival of old words" — " Words that wise Bacon or brave Rawleigh spake ; " and Dr Latham honours our subject by remarking that "the thieves of London are the conservators of Anglo-Saxonisms.

And the reader who looks into the Dictionary of the vagabond's lingo, will see at a glance that these gentlemen were quite correct, and that we are compelled to acknowledge the singular truth that a great many old words, once respectable, and in the mouths of kings and fine ladies, are now only so many signals for shrugs and shudders amongst exceedingly polite people. A young gentleman from Belgravia, who had lost his watch or his pocket-handkerchief, would scarcely remark to his mamma that it had been boned — yet bone, in old times, meant, amongst high and low, to steal.

Gallavanting, waiting upon the ladies, was as polite in expression as in action ; whilst a clergy- man at Paule's Crosse thought nothing of bidding a noisy hearer " hold his GAB," or " shut up his gob. Persons of modern tastes will be shocked to know that the great Lord Bacon spoke of the lower part of a man's face as his gills. Shakspeare, or, as the French say, " the divine WUliam," also used many words which are now counted as dreadfully vulgar. A London costermonger, or inhabitant of the streets, instead of saying, " 1 11 make him yield," or " give in," in a fight or contest, would say, "I'U make him buckle under.

The cant word prig, from the Saxon, priccan, to filch, is also Shakspearian ; so indeed is PIECE, a contemptuous term for a young woman. Shakspeare was not the only vulgar dramatist of his time. Ben Jonson, Beaumont and Fletcher, Brome, and other play-writers, occa- sionally put Cant words into the mouths of their low characters, or employed old words which have since degenerated into vulgarisms. One old Enghsh mode of canting, simple and effective when familiarised by practice, was the inserting a consonant betwixt each syllable: This is called Marrow- skying, or Medical Greek, from its use by medical students at the hospitals.

Albert Smith terms it the Gower Street Dialect. The Language of Ziph, I may add, is another rude mode of disguising English, in use among the students at Winchester College. The assertion, however strange it may appear, is no fiction.

The subject was not long since brought under the attention of the Government by Mr Hawlinson. The vagrant's nark may he seen in Uavant, on corners of streets, on door-posts, on house-steps. Simple as these chalk-lines appear, they inform the succeeding va- grants of all they require to know; and a few white scratches may say, ' Be importunate,' or ' Pass on. Every door or passage is pregnant with instruction as to the error com- mitted by the patron of beggars ; as the beggar-marks shew that a system of freemasonry is followed, by which a beggar knows whether it will be worth his while to call into a passage or knock at a door.

Let any one examine the entrances to the passages in any town, and there he will find chalk marks, unintelligible to him, but significant enough to beggars. The passage mark is a cypher with a twisted tail: Almost every door has its marks: In some cases there is a cross on the brick work, in others a cypher: Every person may for himself test the accuracy of these state- ments by the examination of the brick-work near his own door- way — thus demonstrating that mendicity is a regular trade, carried out upon a system calculated to save time, and realise the largest profits.

Charts of successful begging neighbourhoods are rudely drawn, and sym- bolical signs attached to each house to shew whether benevolent or adverse. It was obtained from the patterers and tramps who supplied a great many words for this work, and who have been employed by me for some time in collecting Old Ballads, Christmas Carols, Dying Speeches, and Last Lamentations, as materials for a History of Popular Literature.

The reader will no doubt be amused with the drawing. The English practice of marking everything, and scratching names on public property, extends itself to the tribe of vagabonds. Now at St Albans, for instance, at the , and at other places, there is a paper stuck up in ejich of the kitchens. In many of these papers there are sometimes twenty walks set down.

No villages that are in any way "gammy" [bad] are ever mentioned in these papers, and the cadger, if he feels inclined to stop for a few days in the town, will be told by the lodging-house keeper, or the other cadgers that he may meet there, what gentlemen's seats or private houses are of any account on the walk that he means to take.

Above her, three beggars or hawk- ers have reckoned their day's earnings, amounting to 13s. No key or explana- tion to the hieroglyphics was given in the original, because it would have been superfluous, when every inmate of the lodging-house knew the marks from their cradle — or rather their mother's back. Should there be no map, in most lodging-houses there is an old man who is guide to every " walk" in the vicinity, and who can tell on every round each house that is "good for a cold tatur.

STOP, — If you have what they want, they will buy. They are ' "T pretty "fly," knowing. Safe for a "cold tatur," if for nothing else. Where did these signs come from, and when were they first used? And strange it would be if some modern Belzoni, or Champollion, discovered in these beggars' marks fragments of ancient Egyptian or Hindoo hiero- glyphical writing! But this, of course, is a simple vagary of the imagination. That the Gipsies were in the habit of leaving memorials of the road they had taken, and the successes that had befallen them, there can be no doubt.

In an old book, The Triumph of Wit, , there is a passage which appears to have been copied from some older work, and it runs thus: I cannot close this subject without dravring attention to the extraordinary fact, that actually on the threshold of the gibbet the sign of the vagabond is to be met with!

In a popular constable's Guide, giving the practice of justices in petty sessions, I have recently met with the f jUowing inter- esting paragraph, corroborating what has just been said on the hieroglyphics used by vagabonds: In the night time a CLEFT stick is placed in the fence at the cross roads, with an arm pointing down the road their com- rades have taken. The marks are always placed on the left-hand side, so , that the stragglers can easily and readily find them. Slang is the language of street humour, of fast, high, and low life.

Cant, as was stated in the chapter upon that subject, is the vulgar language of secrecy. They are both universal and ancient, and appear to have been the peculiar concomitants of gay, vulgar, or worthless persons in every part of the world at every period of time.

Indeed, if we are to believe implicitly the saying of the wise man, that " there is nothing new under the sun," the "fast" men of buried Nineveh, with their knotty and door-matty-looking beards, may have cracked Slang jokes on the steps of Sennacherib's palace ; and the stocks and stones of ancient Egypt, and the bricks of venerable and used-up Babylon, may, for aught we know, be covered with Slang hieroglyphics, un- known to modern antiquaries, which have long been stumbling- blocks to the philologist ; so impossible is it at this day to say what was then authorised, or what vulgar language.

Slang is as old as speech and the congregating together of people in cities. It is the result of crowding, and excitement, and artificial life. Even to the Classics it was not unknown, as witness the pages of Aristophanes and Plautus, Terence and Athenaius. Martial, the epigrammatist, is full of Slang. Old English Slang was coarser, and depended more upon downright vulgarity than our modern Slang. It was a jesting speech, or humorous indulgence for the thoughtless moment, or the drunken hour, and it acted as a vent-peg for a fit of temper or irritability ; but it did not interlard and permeate every de- scription of conversation as now.

It was confined to nicknames and improper subjects, and encroached but to a very small extent upon the domain of authorised speecL Indeed, it was exceed- ingly limited when compared with the vast territory of Slang in such general favour and complete circulation at the present day.

StiU, although not an alarming encumbrance, as in our time. Slang certainly did exist in this country centuries ago, as we may see if we look down the page of any respectable History of England. His Legislature, too, was spoken of in a high-flavoured way as the barebones, or rump Parlia- ment, and his followers were nicknamed roundheads, and the peculiar religious sects of his protectorate were styled puritans and QUAKERS.

Here is a field of inquiry for the Philological Society, indeed I may say a territory, f r there are thirty thousand of these partisan tracta Later still, in the court of Charles II. At a later period, when coUars were worn detached from shirts, in order to save the expense of washing — an object it would seem with needy "swells" in all ages — they obtained the name of jacobites. One half of the coarse wit in Butler's Hudibras lurks in the vulgar words and phrases which he was so fond of employing.

They were more homely and forcible than the mild and elegant sentences of Cowley, and the people, therefore, hurrahed them, and pronounced Butler one of themselves, — or, as we should say, in a jojrful moment, " a jolly good feUow. Burly Grose men- tions Henley, with the remark that we owe a great many Slang phrases to him.

Swift, and old Sir Eoger L'Estrange, and Arbuthnot, were all fond of vulgar or Slang language ; indeed, we may see from a Slang word used by the latter how curious is the gradual adoption of vulgar terms in our standard dictionaries. The worthy doctor, in order to annihilate or, as we should say, with a fitting respect to the subject under consideration, smash an opponent, thought proper on an occasion to use the word CABBAGE, not in the ancient and esculentary sense of a flatulent vegetable of the kitchen garden, but in the at once Slang sense of purloining or cribbing.

Johnson soon met with the word, looked at it, examined it, weighed it, and shook his head, but out oi respect to a brother doctor inserted it in his dictionary, labelling it, however, prominently " Cant;" whilst Walker and Webster, years after, when to cabbage was to pilfer all over England, placed the term in their dictionaries as an ancient and very respectable word.

Another Slang term, gull, to cheat, or dektie, sometimes varied to gully, is stated to be connected with Jie Dean of St Patrick's.

How crammed with Slang are the dramatic works of the last century 1 The writers of the comedies and farces in those days must have lived in the streets, and written their plays in the public-houses, so filled are they with vulgarisms and unauthorised words.

The popular phrases, " I owe you one," " That 's one for his nob," and " Keep moving, dad," arose in this way. The veritable Quaker, the "real Simon Pure," recommended by Aminadab Holdfast, of Bristol, as a fit sojourner with Obadiah Prim, arrives at last, to the discomfiture of the Colonel, who, to maintain his position and gain time, con- cocts a letter in which the real Quaker is spoken of as a house- breaker who had travelled in the "leather conveniency" from Bristol, and adopted the garb and name of the western Quaker in order to pass off as the " real simon pure," but only for the purpose of robbing the house and cutting the throat of the per- plexed Obadiah.

The scene in which the two Simon Pures, the real and the counterfeit, meet, is one of the best in the comedy. Written Slang was checked, rather than advanced, by the pens of Addison, Johnson, and Goldsmith; although John Bee, the bottle-holder and historiographer of the pugilistic band of brothers in the youthful days of flat-nosed Tom Crib, has gravely stated that Johnson, when young and rakish, contributed to an early volume of the Gentleman's Magazine a few pages, by way of speci- men, of a Slang dictionary, the result, Mr Bee says, " of his mid- night ramblings!

The word FUDGE, it has been stated, was first used by him in literary com- position,J although it originated with one Captain Fudge, a notorious fibber, nearly a century before.

Street phrases, nick- names, and vulgar words were continually being added to the great stock of popular Slang up to the commencement of the present century, when it received numerous additions from pugil- ism, horse-racing, and " fast " life generally, which suddenly came into great public favour, and was at its height when the Prince Regent was in his rakish minority. Slang in those days was generally termed flash language.

So popular was it with the " bloods" of high life, that it constituted the best paying literary capital for certain authors and dramatists. I have searched the venerable magazine in vaiti for this Slang glossary, t This is incorrect See under Fuuge in the Dictionary.

This, also, was brimful of Slang. Other authors helped to popularise and extend Slang down to our own time, when it has taken a somewhat different turn, dropping many of the Cant and old vulgar words, and assuming a certain quaint and fashionable phraseology — Frenchy, familiar, utilitarian, and jovial There can be no doubt but that common speech is greatly influenced by fashion, fresh manners, and that general change of ideas which steals over a people once in a generation.

But before I proceed further into the region of Slang, it will be well to say something on the etymology of the word. The word Slang is only mentioned by two lexicographers — Webster and OgUvie. The origin of the word has often been asked for in lite- rary journals and books, but only one man, as far as I can learn, has ever hazarded an etymology — Jonathan Bee, the vulgar chronicler of the prize-ring.

How far he succeeded in this latter particular, bis ridiculous etymology of Slang wiU shew. It occurs in his Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, of , with the signification that it im- plies " Cant or vulgar language.

Hucksters and beggars on tramp, or at fairs and races, associate and frequently join in any rough enterprise with the Gipsiest The word would be continually heard by them, and would in this manner soon become Cant; J and, when carried by " fast" or vulgar fashionables from the society of thieves and low characters to their own drawing-rooms, would as quickly become Slang, and the representative term for all vulgar or Slang lan- guage.

Crabb, who wrote the QipHes' Advocate in , thus mentions the word: X The word Slano assumed various meanings amongst costermongers, beggars, and vagalwnds of all orders. It was, and is still, used to express "cheating by false weights," "araree ahow," "retiring by aback door," "a watch-chain," their "secret language," Ac. Arvy sudden excitement, peculiar circumstance, or popular lite- rary production, is quite sufficient to originate and set agoing a score of Slang words.

There is scarcely a condition or calling in life that does not possess its own peculiar Slang. The professions, legal and medical, have each familiar and unauthorised terms for peculiar circumstances and things, and I am quite certain that the clerical calling, or " the cloth" is not entirely free from this peculiarity.

Every workshop, warehouse, factory, and mill throughout the country has its Slang, and so have the public schools of Eton, Harrow, and Westminster, and the great Universities of Oxford and Cambridge.

Sea Slang constitutes the principal charm of a sailor's "yarn;" and our soldiers and officers have each their peculiar nicknames and terms for things and subjects proper and improper. A writer in Household Woi-ds No. The universality of Slang is extraordinary. Let any person for a short time narrowly examine the conversation of their dearest and nearest friends, ay, censor-like, even slice and ana- lyse their own supposed correct talk, and they shall be amazed at the numerous unauthorised, and what we can only call vulgar, words they continually employ.

Look at those simple and useful verbs, do, cut, go, and take, and see how they are hampered and overloaded, and then let us ask ourselves how is it possible for a French or German gentleman, be he ever so well educated, to avoid con- tinually blundering and floundering amongst our little words when trying to make himself understood in an ordinary conver- sation? He may have studied our language the required time, and have gone through the usual amount of " grinding," and practised the common allotment of patience, but all to no pur- pose as far as accuracy is concerned.

I am aware that most new words are generally regarded as Slang, although afterwards they may become-aseful and resjjectable additions to our standard dictionaries. Jabber and hoax were Slang and Cant terms in Swift's time ; so indeed were mob and sham. Sound contributes many Slang words — a source t jat etymologists too fre- quently overlook. Nothing pleases an ignorant person so much as a high-sounding term " full of fury. It was their beasts of burden, and called first mobile vulgus, but fell naturally into the contraction of one syllable, and ever since is bLCOuie proper English.

In the United States the vulgar-genteel even excel the poor " stuck-up" Cockneys in their formation of a native fashionable language. Vul- gar words representing action and brisk movement often owe tlieir origin to sound. Mispronunciation, too, is another great source of vulgar or Slang words — ramshackle, shackly, nary- one for neither or neither one, ottomy or atomy for anatomy, BENCH for rinse, are specimens. The commonalty dislike fre- quently-occurring words difficult of pronunciation, and so we have the street abridgments of bimeby for by and by, caze for because, gin for given, hankerchek for handkerchief, bumatiz for rheumatism, backy for tobacco, and many others, not perhaps Slang, but certainly all vulgarisms.

Fashionable or Upper-class Slang is of several varieties. English officers, civilians, and their families, who have resided long in India, have contributed many terms from the Hindostanee to our language. Several of these, such as chit, a letter, or tiffin, lunch, are fast losing their Slang character, and becoming regularly-recognised English words. Jungle, as a term for a forest or wilderness, is now an English phrase ; a few years past, however, it was merely the Hindostanee junkul.

The extension of trade in China, and the English settlement at Hong Kong, have introduced among us several examples of Canton Jargon, that exceedingly curious Anglo-Chinese dialect spoken in the seaports of the Celestial Empire. While these words have been carried as it were into the families of the upper and middle classes, persons in a hum- bler rank of life, through the sailors, soldiers, Lascar and Chinese beggars that haunt the metropolis, have also adopted many Anglo-Indian and Anglo-Chinese phrases.

As this Dictionary would have been incomplete without them, they are all carefully recorded in its columns. Concerning the Slang of the fashion- able world, a writer in Household Words curiously, but not alto- gether truthfully, remarks, that it is mostly imported from France ; and that an unmeaning gibberish of Gallicisms runs through English fashionable conversation, and fashionable novels, and accounts of fashionable parties in the fashionable newspapers. Yet, ludicrously enough, immediately the fashionable magnates of England seize on any French idiom, the French themselves not only universally abandon it to us, but positively repudiate it altogether from their idiomatic vocabulary.

If you were to tell a well-bred Frenchman that such and such an aristocratic marriage was on the tapis, he would stare with astonishment, and look down on the carpet in the startled endeavour to find a mar- riage in so unusual a place. Comer and Chelsea Bun House. If you were to point out to him the Dowager Lady Grimgriffin acting as chaperon to Lady Amanda Creamville, he would imagine you were referring to the petit Chaperon rouge — to little Red-Eiding Hood.

He might just understand what was meant by vis-drvis, entremets, and some others of the flying horde of frivolous little foreign slangisms hovering about fashionable cookery and fashionable furniture ; but three-fourths of them would seem to him as barbarous French provincialisms, or, at best, but as antiquated and obso- lete expressions, picked out of the letters of Mademoiselle Scuderi, or the tales of CrebUlon the " younger. Is that cold-blooded Smithfield or Mark-Lane term for a sale or a purchase the proper word to express the hopeful, joyous, golden union of young and trustful hearts?

Which is the proper way to pronounce the names of great people, and what the correct authority? I don't know that these lofty persons have as much cause to complain of the illiberality of fate in giving them disagreeable names as did the celebrated Psyche, as she was termed by Tom Moore, whose original name, through her husband, was Teague, but which was afterwards altered to Tighe.

The pronunciation of proper names has long been an anomaly in the conversation of the upper classes of this country. Hodge and Podge, the clodhoppers of Shaks- peare's time, talked in their mug-houses of the great Lords Barbie, Barhelie, and Bartie. A costermonger is ignorant of such a place as Birmingham, but understands you in a moment if you talk of Brummagem. Why do not Pall Mall join with the costermongers in this pronunciation 1 It is the ancient one.

When mem- bers, however, get excited, and wish to be forcible, they are often not very particular which of the street terms they select, pro- viding it carries, as good old Dr South said, plenty of " wUd-fire " in it.

Sir Hugh Cairns very lately spoke of "that homely but expressive phrase, dodge. I have often heard the cabmen on the " ranks " in Piccadilly remark of the late Chancellor of the Exchequer, when he has been going from his residence at Grosvenor Gate to Derby House in St James's Square, " Hollo, there!

A CAUCUS meeting refers to the private assembling of politicians before an election, when candidates are chosen, and measures of action agreed upon. The term comes from America. A job, in political phraseology, is a government office or contract obtained by secret influence or favouritism. Only the other day the Timei spoke of " the patriotic member of Parliament potted out in a dusty little lodging somewhere about Bury Street. The term eat, too, in allusion to rats deserting vessels about to sink, has long been employed towards those turncoat politicians who change their party for interest.

Who that occasionally passes near the Houses of Parliament has not often noticed stout or careful M. Inconvenient friends, or elderly and lectur- ing relatives, are pronounced deeadful bores.

Four-wheeled cabs are called boundeks ; and a member of the Four-in-hand Club, driving to Epsom on the Derby Day, would, using fashion- able phraseology, speak of it as tooling his drag down to the DERBY. A vehicle, if not a drag or dwag is a trap, or a cask ; and if the turn out happens to be in other than a trim condi- tion, it is pronounced at once as not down the road.

Your City swell would say it is not up to the mark ; whUst the costermonger would call it wery dickey. In the army a barrack or military station is known as a lobster-box ; to " cram " for an examination is to mug-up ; to reject from the examination is to spin ; and that part of the barrack occupied by subalterns is frequently spoken of as the rookery. Wrinkled-faced old professors, who hold dress and fashionable tailors in abhorrence, are called awful swells, — if they happen to be very learned or clever.

Horace Waipole quotes a party nickname of Februai-y , as a Slang word of the day: The military phrase, " to send a man to covENTRy," or permit no person to speak to him, although an ancient saying, must still be considered Slang. The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and the great public schools, are the hotbeds of fashionable Slang. Growing boys and high-spirited young fellows detest restraint of all kinds, and prefer making a dash at life in a Slang phraseology of their own, to all the set forms and syntactical rules of Alma Mater.

Many of the most expressive words in a common chit-chat, or free-and-easy conversation, are old university vulgarisms. Cut, in the sense of dropping an acquaintance, was originally a Cam- bridge form of speech ; and hoax, to deceive or ridicule, we are informed by Grose, was many years since an Oxford term.

Among the words that fast society has borrowed from our great scholastic I was going to say establishments, but I remember the Unen-drapers' horrid and habitual use of the word institutions, I find CRIB, a house or apartments; de. The Slang words in use at Oxford and Cam- bridge would alone fill a volume.

As examples I may instance scout, which at Oxford refers to an undergraduate's valet, whilst the same menial at Cambridge is termed a oyp, — popularly derived by the C. The term dickey, a half shirt, I am told, originated with the students of Trinity College, Dublin, who at first styled it a tommy, from the Greek. Crib, a literal translation, is now universal ; grind refers to " working up " for an examination, also, to a walk, or " constitutional ; " hivite is a student of St Begh's St Bee's College, Cumberland ; to japan, in this Slang speech, is to ordain ; mortar-boaed is a square college cap ; siM, a student of a Methodistical turn — in allusion to the Rev.

Charles Simeon ; sloggees, at Cambridge, refers to the second division of race boats, known at Oxford as torpids ; sport is to shew or exhibit ; trotter is the jocose term for a tailor's man who goes round for orders ; and tufts are wealthy students who dine with the DONS, and are distinguished by golden tufts, or tassels, in their caps. For numerous other examples of college Slang the reader is referred to the Dictionary.

Religious Slang, strange as the compound may appear, exists with other descriptions of vulgar speech at the present day. Punch, a short time since, in one of those halt-humorous, half- serious articles in which he is so fond of lecturing any national abuse or popular folly, remarked that Slang had "long since penetrated into the Forum, and now we meet it in the Senate, and even the pulpit itself is no longer free from its intrusion.

As stated in his Essay, the practice appears to confine itself mainly to the exaggerated forms of the High and Low Church — the Tractarians and the " Eecordites. We hear that Mr A. Again, the word gracious is invested with a meaning as extensive as that attached by young ladies to nice. Thus, we hear of a " gracious sermon," a " gracious meeting," a "gracious child," and even a " gracious whipping. It is applied to every person, book, or place, not impregnated with Eecordite principles.

We once were witnesses of a ludicrous misunderstanding result- ing from this phraseology. The conclusion of one of these singular evening parties is generally marked by an "exposition" — an unseasonable sermon of nearly one hour's duration, circumscribed by no text, and delivered from the table by one of the clerical visitors with a view to " improve the occasion.

The old-fashioned High-Church party — rich and " stagnant," noted for its " sluggish mediocrity, hatred of zeal, dread of innovation, abuse of Dissent, blundering and languid utterance" — is called the high akd dry ; whilst the corresponding division, known as the Low Church — equally stagnant with the former, but poorer, and more lazUy inclined from absence of edu- cation to Dissent — receives the nickname of the low and slow.

Already have these terms become so familiar that they are short- ened, in ordinary conversation, to the dry and the slow. What can be more objectionable than the irreverent and offensive manner in which many of the Dissenting ministers continually pronounce the names of the Deity — God and Lord?

I have observed that many young preachers strive hard to acquire this peculiar pronuncia- tion, in imitation of the older ministers. These vagaries of speech will, perhaps, by an apologist, be termed " pulpit peculiarities," and the writer dared to inter- meddle with a subject that is or should be removed from his criticisms. The terms used by the mob towards the Church, however illiberal and satirically vulgar, are within his province in such an inquiry as the present. If a Tractarian, his outer garment is rudely spoken of as a pygostole, or m.

His profession is termed the cloth, and his practice tub-thumping. Should he belong to the Dissenting body, he is probably styled a pan- tiler, or a psalm-smiter, or, perhaps, a swaddler. His chapel, too, is spoken of as a schism shop. A Eoman Catholic, I may remark, is coarsely named a brisket-beateb. Particular as lawyers generally are about the meaning of words, they have not prevented an unauthorised phraseology from arising, which we may term Legal Slang.

So forcibly did this truth impress a late writer, that he wrote in a popular journal, " You may hear Slang every day in term from barristers in their robes, at every mess-table, at every bar-mess, at every college commons, and in every club dining-room. Lawyers, from their connexion with the police courts, and transactions with persons in every grade of society, have ample opportunities for acquiring street Slang, which, in cross-questioning and wrangling, they frequently avail themselves of.

It has been said there exists a Literary Slang, or " the Slang of Criticism — dramatic, artistic, and scientific. Such words as 'aesthetic,' 'transcendental,' the 'harmonies,' the 'unities,' a ' mjrth: In the English newspapers the same thing is ohservable, and certain of them contain more of the class denominated Slang words than our own.

A short time since 4th May he gave an original etymology of the schoolboy-ism slog. And it was not long ago that he amused his readers with two columns on Slang and Sanscrit: While, however, the spirit of allegory comes from the East, there is so great a difference between the brevity of Western expression and the more cumbrous diction of the Oriental, that the origin of a phrase becomes difficult to trace.

Thus, for instance, whilst the Turkish merchant might address his friend somewhat as follows — ' That which seems good to my father is to his servant as the perfumed breath of the west wind in the calm night of the Arabian summer;' the Western negotiator observes more briefly, ' all sereke! Bosh, remarks Punch, after speaking of it as belonging to the stock of words pilfered from the Turks, " is one whose innate force and beauty the slangographer is reluctantly compelled to admit It is the only word which seems a proper appellation for a great deal which we are obUged to hear and to read every day of our life.

The universality of Slang, I may here remark, is proved by its continual use in the pages of Punch. Whoever thinks, unless belonging to a past generation, of asking a friend to explain the stray vulgar words employed by the London Charivari? The AthencBum, the most learned and censor-like of aU the " weeklies," often indulges in a Slang word, when force of expres- sion or a little humour is desired, or when the writer wishes to say something which is better said in Slang, or so-called vulgar speech, than in the autherised language of Dr Johnson or Lindley Murray.

It was but the other day that a writer in its pages employed an old and favourite word, used always when we were highly pleased with any article at school — stunning. Among the words and phrases which may be included under the head of Literary Slang are, Balaam, matter kept constantly in type about monstrous productions of nature, to fill up spaces in newspapers ; balaam-box, the term given in Blackwood to the repository for rejected articles ; and SLATE, to pelt with abuse, or cut up in a review.

The Momitig Post has obtained the suggestive sobriquet of jeames ; whilst the Morning Herald has long been caricatured as mes haeeis, and the Standard as mes gamp. The stage-manager is familiarly termed daddy ; and an actor by profession, or a " pro- fessional," is called a peg. A man who is occasionally hired at a trifling remuneration to come upon the stage as one of a crowd, or when a number of actors are wanted to give efifect, is named a sup, — an abbreviation of " supernumerary.

A ben is a benefit: The travelling or provincial theatricals, who perform in any large room that can be rented in a country village, are called baen-stoemees. A saddle is the additional charge made by a manager to an actor or actress upon their benefit night To mug up is to paint one's face, or arrange the person to represent a particular character ; to coepse, or to stick, is to balk, or put the other actors out in their parts by forgetting yours.

A performance is spoken of as either a goosee or a sceeamee, should it be a failure or a great success ; — if the latter, it is not infrequently termed a hit. To stae it is to perform as the centre of attrac- tion, with none but subordinates and indifferent actors in the same performance. There exists, too, in the great territory of vulgar speech what may not inappropriately be termed Civic Slang. It consists of mercantile and Stock-Exchange terms, and the Slang of good living and wealth.

A bear is a speculator on the Exchange ; and a bctll, although of another order, follows a like profession There is something very humor- ous and applicable in the Slang term lame dqck, a defaulter in stock-jobbing speculations. The allusion to his " waddling out of the Alley," as they say, is excellent. Breaking shins, in City Slang, is borrowing money ; a rotten or unsound scheme is spoken of as fishy ; " rigging the market" means playing tricks with it ; and stag was a common term during the railway mania for a speculator without capital, a seller of " scrip " in " Diddlesex Junction" and other equally safe lines.

But before I proceed further in a sketch of the different kinds of Slang, I cannot do better than speak here of the extraordinary number of Cant and Slang terms in use to represent money — from farthings to bank-notes the value of fortimes. So attentive is Slang speech to financial matters, that there are seven terms for bad, or " bogus" coin, as our friends, the Americans, call it: Flying THE kite, or obtaining money on bills and promissory-notes, is closely connected with the allegorical expression of eaisino the wind, which is a well-known phrase for procuring money by immediate sale, pledging, or by a forced loan.

In winter or in summer any elderly gentleman who may have prospered in Hfe is pronounced warm ; whilst an equivalent is immediately at hand in the phrase " his pockets are well lined. To begin with that extremely humble coin, a farthing: A halfpenny is a beown or a madza saltee, Cant, or a mag, or a posh, or a eap, — whence the popular phrase, " I don't care a eap.

Fourpence, or a groat, may in vulgar speech be termed a bit, a flag, or a joey. Sevenpence being an uncommon amount has only one Slang synonyme, setter. The same remark applies to eightpence and ninepence, the former being only represented by otter, and the latter by the Cant phrase nobba-saltee.

One shilling boasts eleven Slang equivalents ; thus we have beong, bob, beeaky-leg, deanee, gen, either from argent, sUver, or the back Slang, hog, levy, peg, stag, teviss, and: One shilling and sixpence is a kt-bosh. Half-a- crown is known as an aldeeman, half a bull, half a tushe- ROON, and a madza caeoon ; whilst a crown piece, or five shil- lings, may be called either a bull, or a caroon, or a cartwheel, or a coACHWHEEL, or a thick-un, or a tusheroon.

Guineas are nearly obsolete, yet the terms neds, and half neds, are still in use. Bank-notes are flimsies, long-tailed ones, or soft. A finuf is a five-pound note. One hundred pounds, or any other " round sum," quietly handed over as payment for services performed, is curiously termed "a cool hundred. The antiquity of many of these Slang names is remarkable.

Winn was the vulgar term for a penny in the days of Queen Elizabeth ; and testee, a sixpence, formerly a shilling, was the correct name in the days of Henry VIII.

The reader, too, will have remarked the frequency of animals' names as Slang terms for money. Little, as a modern writer has remarked, do the persons using these phrases know of their remote and some- what classical origin, which may, indeed, be traced to the period antecedent to that when monarchs monopoUsed the surface of coined money with their own image and superscriptions. They are identical with the very name of money among the early Romans, which was pecunia, from pecus, a flock.

The collections of coin-dealers amply shew that the figure of a hog was anciently placed on a small silver coin ; and that that of a bull decorated larger ones of the same metal.

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