During the 18th century, London was dogged by crime, and the Bow Street Runners were established in as a professional police force. The coffeehouse became a popular place to debate ideas, with growing literacy and the development of the printing press making news widely available; and Fleet Street became the centre of the British press. Following the invasion of Amsterdam by Napoleonic armies, many financiers relocated to London, especially a large Jewish community, and the first London international issue [ clarification needed ] was arranged in Around the same time, the Royal Navy became the world leading war fleet [ citation needed ] , acting as a serious deterrent to potential economic adversaries of the United Kingdom.
The repeal of the Corn Laws in was specifically aimed at weakening Dutch economic power [ citation needed ]. London then overtook Amsterdam as the leading international financial centre [ citation needed ].
You find no man, at all intellectual, who is willing to leave London. No, Sir, when a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in London all that life can afford.
London was the world's largest city from about to The Metropolitan Board of Works oversaw infrastructure expansion in the capital and some of the surrounding counties; it was abolished in when the London County Council was created out of those areas of the counties surrounding the capital. London was bombed by the Germans during the First World War ,  and during the Second World War, the Blitz and other bombings by the German Luftwaffe killed over 30, Londoners, destroying large tracts of housing and other buildings across the city.
From the s onwards, London became home to a large number of immigrants, primarily from Commonwealth countries such as Jamaica, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan,  making London one of the most diverse cities worldwide.
In , the Festival of Britain was held on the South Bank. Primarily starting in the mids, London became a centre for the worldwide youth culture , exemplified by the Swinging London subculture  associated with the King's Road , Chelsea  and Carnaby Street. Greater London's population declined steadily in the decades after the Second World War, from an estimated peak of 8. This was borne out of London's ever-increasing role as a major international financial centre during the s. From the s, London became a common target of IRA terrorist attacks for two decades, starting with the Old Bailey bombing in The Greater London Council was abolished in , which left London without a central administration until when London-wide government was restored, with the creation of the Greater London Authority.
In , London named alongside New York City and Hong Kong as Nylonkong , being hailed as the world's three most influential global cities. Experts feel this is due to excessive pressure in youngsters' environment and youngstersd in deprived areas feel they have no future in terms of jobs or education.
Mental health services for young people who need them are inadequate. The administration of London is formed of two tiers: Citywide administration is coordinated by the Greater London Authority GLA , while local administration is carried out by 33 smaller authorities.
Certain functions, such as waste management , are provided through joint arrangements. It is run by the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority and is the third largest fire service in the world. London is the seat of the Government of the United Kingdom. Many government departments, as well as the Prime Minister's residence at 10 Downing Street , are based close to the Palace of Westminster , particularly along Whitehall.
Crime rates vary widely by area, ranging from parts with serious issues to parts considered very safe. Today crime figures are made available nationally at Local Authority  and Ward level. Recorded crime has been rising in London, notably violent crime and murder by stabbing and other means have risen. There have been 50 murders from the start of to mid April Funding cuts to the London police likely contributed to this though other factors are also involved.
London , also referred to as Greater London, is one of nine regions of England and the top-level subdivision covering most of the city's metropolis. The Greater London boundary has been aligned to the M25 motorway in places. Outward urban expansion is now prevented by the Metropolitan Green Belt ,  although the built-up area extends beyond the boundary in places, resulting in a separately defined Greater London Urban Area. Beyond this is the vast London commuter belt.
Within London, both the City of London and the City of Westminster have city status and both the City of London and the remainder of Greater London are counties for the purposes of lieutenancies. Its position was formed through constitutional convention , making its status as de facto capital a part of the UK's unwritten constitution.
The capital of England was moved to London from Winchester as the Palace of Westminster developed in the 12th and 13th centuries to become the permanent location of the royal court , and thus the political capital of the nation. Historically London grew up at the lowest bridging point on the Thames. The Thames was once a much broader, shallower river with extensive marshlands ; at high tide, its shores reached five times their present width. Since the Victorian era the Thames has been extensively embanked , and many of its London tributaries now flow underground.
The Thames is a tidal river, and London is vulnerable to flooding. In , a decade of work began on the construction of the Thames Barrier across the Thames at Woolwich to deal with this threat. While the barrier is expected to function as designed until roughly , concepts for its future enlargement or redesign are already being discussed.
Summers are generally warm. Winters are generally cool, cloudy and damp with little temperature variation. Snowfall occurs occasionally and can cause travel disruption when this happens. Snowfall is more common in outer London. Spring and autumn are mixed seasons and can be pleasant. London's vast urban area is often described using a set of district names, such as Bloomsbury , Mayfair , Wembley and Whitechapel.
These are either informal designations, reflect the names of villages that have been absorbed by sprawl, or are superseded administrative units such as parishes or former boroughs. Such names have remained in use through tradition, each referring to a local area with its own distinctive character, but without official boundaries. Since Greater London has been divided into 32 London boroughs in addition to the ancient City of London.
The West End is London's main entertainment and shopping district, attracting tourists. The East End is the area closest to the original Port of London , known for its high immigrant population, as well as for being one of the poorest areas in London. London's buildings are too diverse to be characterised by any particular architectural style, partly because of their varying ages. Many grand houses and public buildings, such as the National Gallery , are constructed from Portland stone.
Some areas of the city, particularly those just west of the centre, are characterised by white stucco or whitewashed buildings. Few structures in central London pre-date the Great Fire of , these being a few trace Roman remains, the Tower of London and a few scattered Tudor survivors in the City.
The disused — but soon to be rejuvenated — Battersea Power Station by the river in the south-west is a local landmark, while some railway termini are excellent examples of Victorian architecture , most notably St. The Monument in the City of London provides views of the surrounding area while commemorating the Great Fire of London , which originated nearby. Nelson's Column is a nationally recognised monument in Trafalgar Square , one of the focal points of central London.
Older buildings are mainly brick built, most commonly the yellow London stock brick or a warm orange-red variety, often decorated with carvings and white plaster mouldings. In the dense areas, most of the concentration is via medium- and high-rise buildings. High-rise development is restricted at certain sites if it would obstruct protected views of St Paul's Cathedral and other historic buildings.
Nevertheless, there are a number of very tall skyscrapers in central London see Tall buildings in London , including the storey Shard London Bridge , the tallest building in the European Union. They indicate that species of flowering plant have been found growing there and that the tidal Thames supports species of fish.
London's wetland areas support nationally important populations of many water birds. Amphibians are common in the capital, including smooth newts living by the Tate Modern , and common frogs, common toads , palmate newts and great crested newts. On the other hand, native reptiles such as slowworms , common lizards , grass snakes and adders , are mostly only seen in Outer London. Among other inhabitants of London are 10, red foxes , so that there are now 16 foxes for every square mile 2.
These urban foxes are noticeably bolder than their country cousins, sharing the pavement with pedestrians and raising cubs in people's backyards. Foxes have even sneaked into the Houses of Parliament , where one was found asleep on a filing cabinet. Generally, however, foxes and city folk appear to get along. A survey in by the London-based Mammal Society found that 80 percent of 3, respondents who volunteered to keep a diary of garden mammal visits liked having them around.
This sample cannot be taken to represent Londoners as a whole. Other mammals found in Greater London are hedgehogs , rats, mice, rabbit, shrew, vole, and squirrels,  In wilder areas of Outer London, such as Epping Forest , a wide variety of mammals are found including hare , badger , field, bank and water vole , wood mouse , yellow-necked mouse , mole , shrew , and weasel , in addition to fox, squirrel and hedgehog.
A dead otter was found at The Highway, in Wapping , about a mile from the Tower Bridge , which would suggest that they have begun to move back after being absent a hundred years from the city.
Unnatural History of London" shows pigeons using the London Underground to get around the city, a seal that takes fish from fishmongers outside Billingsgate Fish Market , and foxes that will "sit" if given sausages. Herds of red and fallow deer also roam freely within much of Richmond and Bushy Park. A cull takes place each November and February to ensure numbers can be sustained. A rare population of melanistic , black fallow deer is also maintained at the Deer Sanctuary near Theydon Bois.
Muntjac deer , which escaped from deer parks at the turn of the twentieth century, are also found in the forest. While Londoners are accustomed to wildlife such as birds and foxes sharing the city, more recently urban deer have started becoming a regular feature, and whole herds of fallow deer come into residential areas at night to take advantage of London's green spaces.
The census recorded that 2,, people or Note that some of the German-born population, in 18th position, are British citizens from birth born to parents serving in the British Armed Forces in Germany. With increasing industrialisation, London's population grew rapidly throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and it was for some time in the late 19th and early 20th centuries the most populous city in the world.
Its population peaked at 8,, in immediately before the outbreak of the Second World War, but had declined to 7,, at the Census. However, the population then grew by just over a million between the and Censuses, to reach 8,, in the latter enumeration. As of [update] , London has the largest number of billionaires British Pound Sterling in the world, with 72 residing in the city.
Ethnic groups in the census . According to the Office for National Statistics , based on the Census estimates, Indians account for 6. Chinese peoples account for 1. Black Africans account for 7. Across London, Black and Asian children outnumber White British children by about six to four in state schools. The census showed that According to the Census , the largest religious groupings are Christians London has traditionally been Christian, and has a large number of churches , particularly in the City of London.
The well-known St Paul's Cathedral in the City and Southwark Cathedral south of the river are Anglican administrative centres,  while the Archbishop of Canterbury , principal bishop of the Church of England and worldwide Anglican Communion , has his main residence at Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth. Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between St Paul's and Westminster Abbey.
Church attendance continues on a long, slow, steady decline, according to Church of England statistics. London is also home to sizeable Muslim , Hindu , Sikh , and Jewish communities. Following the oil boom, increasing numbers of wealthy Hindus and Middle-Eastern Muslims have based themselves around Mayfair and Knightsbridge in West London. There are Sikh communities in East and West London, particularly in Southall, home to one of the largest Sikh populations and the largest Sikh temple outside India.
It is the only synagogue in Europe which has held regular services continuously for over years. Stanmore and Canons Park Synagogue has the largest membership of any single Orthodox synagogue in the whole of Europe, overtaking Ilford synagogue also in London in There are many accents traditionally associated with London.
The most well known of the London accents long ago acquired the Cockney label from London's East End , which is heard both in London itself, and across the wider South East England region more generally. Since the turn of the century the Cockney dialect is less common in the East End and has 'migrated' east to Havering and the county of Essex.
One way to get an idea of their relative importance is to look at relative amounts of office space: London has some of the highest real estate prices in the world.
London is one of the pre-eminent financial centres of the world as the most important location for international finance. For many bankers established in Amsterdam e. Hope, Baring , this was only time to move to London. The London financial elite was strengthened by a strong Jewish community from all over Europe capable of mastering the most sophisticated financial tools of the time. By the end of the 19th century, Britain was the wealthiest of all nations, and London a leading financial centre.
Kearney's Global Cities Index. London's largest industry is finance, and its financial exports make it a large contributor to the UK's balance of payments. Around , people were employed in financial services in London until mid London has over overseas banks, more than any other city in the world. Because of its prominent global role, London's economy had been affected by the financial crisis of — However, by the City has recovered; put in place new regulatory powers, proceeded to regain lost ground and re-established London's economic dominance.
Over 70 per cent of the FTSE are within London's metropolitan area, and 75 per cent of Fortune companies have offices in London. Media companies are concentrated in London and the media distribution industry is London's second most competitive sector. Many national newspapers are edited in London.
In April , the city was among the first to receive a geoTLD. The gas and electricity distribution networks that manage and operate the towers, cables and pressure systems that deliver energy to consumers across the city are managed by National Grid plc , SGN  and UK Power Networks.
London is one of the leading tourist destinations in the world and in was ranked as the most visited city in the world with over 65 million visits. In the top most-visited attractions in the UK were all in London.
The top 10 most visited attractions were: The number of hotel rooms in London in stood at ,, and is expected to grow over the years. Transport is one of the four main areas of policy administered by the Mayor of London,  however the mayor's financial control does not extend to the longer distance rail network that enters London.
In he assumed responsibility for some local lines, which now form the London Overground network, adding to the existing responsibility for the London Underground, trams and buses.
The lines that formed the London Underground, as well as trams and buses, became part of an integrated transport system in when the London Passenger Transport Board or London Transport was created.
Transport for London is now the statutory corporation responsible for most aspects of the transport system in Greater London, and is run by a board and a commissioner appointed by the Mayor of London. London is a major international air transport hub with the busiest city airspace in the world. Eight airports use the word London in their name, but most traffic passes through six of these. Additionally, various other airports also serve London, catering primarily to general aviation flights. The London Underground , commonly referred to as the Tube, is the oldest  and third longest  metro system in the world.
The system serves stations  and was formed from several private companies, including the world's first underground electric line, the City and South London Railway. There are more than railway stations in the London Travelcard Zones on an extensive above-ground suburban railway network. South London, particularly, has a high concentration of railways as it has fewer Underground lines. Most rail lines terminate around the centre of London, running into eighteen terminal stations , with the exception of the Thameslink trains connecting Bedford in the north and Brighton in the south via Luton and Gatwick airports.
With the need for more rail capacity in London, Crossrail is due to open in It will be a new railway line running east to west through London and into the Home Counties with a branch to Heathrow Airport. London is the centre of the National Rail network, with 70 percent of rail journeys starting or ending in London.
Some international railway services to Continental Europe were operated during the 20th century as boat trains , such as the Admiraal de Ruijter to Amsterdam and the Night Ferry to Paris and Brussels. The opening of the Channel Tunnel in connected London directly to the continental rail network, allowing Eurostar services to begin. Since , high-speed trains link St. Although rail freight levels are far down compared to their height, significant quantities of cargo are also carried into and out of London by rail; chiefly building materials and landfill waste.
London's bus network is one of the largest in the world, running 24 hours a day, with about 8, buses, more than bus routes and around 19, bus stops. London has the largest wheelchair accessible network in the world  and, from the 3rd quarter of , became more accessible to hearing and visually impaired passengers as audio-visual announcements were introduced. The distinctive red double-decker buses are an internationally recognised trademark of London transport along with black cabs and the Tube.
London has a modern tram network, known as Tramlink , centred on Croydon in South London. London's first and only cable car, known as the Emirates Air Line , opened in June Crossing the River Thames , linking Greenwich Peninsula and the Royal Docks in the east of the city, the cable car is integrated with London's Oyster Card ticketing system, although special fares are charged.
Similar to the Santander Cycles bike hire scheme, the cable car is sponsored in a year deal by the airline Emirates. In the whole Greater London Area, around , people use a bike everyday. This is a small proportion, when compared to many other cities in the world  A reason may well be the poor investments for cycling in the UK. The launch of a cycle hire scheme in July has been successful and generally well received. The London Cycling Campaign lobbies for better provision.
From being the largest port in the world, the Port of London is now only the second-largest in the United Kingdom, handling 45 million tonnes of cargo each year. London has frequent river boat services on the Thames known as Thames Clippers. The Woolwich Ferry , with 2. Other operators run both commuter and tourist boat services in London.
Although the majority of journeys involving central London are made by public transport, car travel is common in the suburbs. The inner ring road around the city centre , the North and South Circular roads in the suburbs , and the outer orbital motorway the M25 , outside the built-up area encircle the city and are intersected by a number of busy radial routes—but very few motorways penetrate into inner London.
A plan for a comprehensive network of motorways throughout the city the Ringways Plan was prepared in the s but was mostly cancelled in the early s.
London is notorious for its traffic congestion, with the average speed of a car in the rush hour being In , a congestion charge was introduced to reduce traffic volumes in the city centre. London is a major global centre of higher education teaching and research and has the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe.
A number of world-leading education institutions are based in London. With , students in London,  the federal University of London is the largest contact teaching university in the UK. Leisure is a major part of the London economy, with a report attributing a quarter of the entire UK leisure economy to London  at Within the City of Westminster in London, the entertainment district of the West End has its focus around Leicester Square , where London and world film premieres are held, and Piccadilly Circus , with its giant electronic advertisements.
The city is the home of Andrew Lloyd Webber , whose musicals have dominated the West End theatre since the late 20th century. Islington 's 1 mile 1. Oxford Street is home to vast numbers of retailers and department stores , including the world-famous Selfridges flagship store. London offers a great variety of cuisine as a result of its ethnically diverse population. Gastronomic centres include the Bangladeshi restaurants of Brick Lane and the Chinese restaurants of Chinatown.
There is a variety of annual events , beginning with the relatively new New Year's Day Parade , a fireworks display at the London Eye ; the world's second largest street party , the Notting Hill Carnival , is held on the late August Bank Holiday each year. Traditional parades include November's Lord Mayor's Show , a centuries-old event celebrating the annual appointment of a new Lord Mayor of the City of London with a procession along the streets of the City, and June's Trooping the Colour , a formal military pageant performed by regiments of the Commonwealth and British armies to celebrate the Queen's Official Birthday.
London has been the setting for many works of literature. The literary centres of London have traditionally been hilly Hampstead and since the early 20th century Bloomsbury. Writers closely associated with the city are the diarist Samuel Pepys , noted for his eyewitness account of the Great Fire , Charles Dickens , whose representation of a foggy, snowy, grimy London of street sweepers and pickpockets has been a major influence on people's vision of early Victorian London, and Virginia Woolf , regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the 20th century.
William Shakespeare spent a large part of his life living and working in London; his contemporary Ben Jonson was also based there, and some of his work—most notably his play The Alchemist —was set in the city. London has played a significant role in the film industry. Major studios within or bordering London include Twickenham , Ealing , Shepperton , Pinewood , Elstree and Borehamwood ,  and a special effects and post-production community centred in Soho.
Working Title Films has its headquarters in London. Many television programmes have been set in London, including the popular television soap opera EastEnders , broadcast by the BBC since London is home to many museums , galleries, and other institutions, many of which are free of admission charges and are major tourist attractions as well as playing a research role.
The first of these to be established was the British Museum in Bloomsbury , in In , the National Gallery was founded to house the British national collection of Western paintings; this now occupies a prominent position in Trafalgar Square. In the latter half of the 19th century the locale of South Kensington was developed as " Albertopolis ", a cultural and scientific quarter. Three major national museums are there: The National Portrait Gallery was founded in to house depictions of figures from British history; its holdings now comprise the world's most extensive collection of portraits.
The Tate Gallery, as it was formerly known, also became a major centre for modern art; in , this collection moved to Tate Modern , a new gallery housed in the former Bankside Power Station. London is one of the major classical and popular music capitals of the world and hosts major music corporations, such as Universal Music Group International and Warner Music Group , as well as countless bands, musicians and industry professionals. Other significant instruments are at the cathedrals and major churches.
Several conservatoires are within the city: London has numerous venues for rock and pop concerts, including the world's busiest arena the O2 arena  and other large arenas such as Earls Court , Wembley Arena , as well as many mid-sized venues, such as Brixton Academy , the Hammersmith Apollo and the Shepherd's Bush Empire. London was instrumental in the development of punk music ,  with figures such as the Sex Pistols , The Clash ,  and Vivienne Westwood all based in the city.
More recent artists to emerge from the London music scene include George Michael 's Wham! In particular the genres UK garage , drum and bass , dubstep and grime evolved in the city from the foreign genres of hip hop and reggae , alongside local drum and bass. A report by the City of London Corporation said that London is the "greenest city" in Europe with 35, acres of public parks, woodlands and gardens. Regent's Park contains London Zoo , the world's oldest scientific zoo, and is near the tourist attraction of Madame Tussauds Wax Museum.
Close to Richmond Park is Kew Gardens which has the world's largest collection of living plants. Some more informal, semi-natural open spaces also exist, including the hectare acre Hampstead Heath of North London ,  and Epping Forest , which covers 2, hectares 6, acres  in the east.
Both are controlled by the City of London Corporation. Epping Forest is a popular venue for various outdoor activities, including mountain biking, walking, horse riding, golf, angling, and orienteering.
Walking is a popular recreational activity in London. London has hosted the Summer Olympics three times: London's most popular sport is football and it has twelve Football League clubs, including five in the Premier League: From , the original Wembley Stadium was the home of the English national football team.
Twickenham Stadium in south-west London is the national rugby union stadium, and has a capacity of 82, now that the new south stand has been completed. One of London's best-known annual sports competitions is the Wimbledon Tennis Championships , held at the All England Club in the south-western suburb of Wimbledon.
London has two Test cricket grounds, Lord's home of Middlesex C. Other key events are the annual mass-participation London Marathon , in which some 35, runners attempt a From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the capital city.
For the region and county of England, see Greater London. For the historic city and financial district within London, see City of London. For other uses, see London disambiguation. Capital of England in England, United Kingdom. History of London and Timeline of London. London in the UK and EU. Local government in London , History of local government in London , and List of heads of London government.
For more station data near London, see Geography of London. List of districts of London and London boroughs. Architecture of London , List of tallest buildings and structures in London , and List of demolished buildings and structures in London.
London maps showing the percentage distribution of selected races according to the Census. Ethnic groups in London. Transport in London and Infrastructure in London. List of annual events in London and West End theatre. List of people from London. Parks and open spaces in London and Royal Parks of London.
Aerial view of Hyde Park. James's Park lake with the London Eye in the distance. London and Paris are of broadly similar size in terms of total economic output which can result in third party sources varying as to which is the fifth-largest city GDP in the world.
The McKinsey Global Institute study used a metropolitan area with a population of Eurostat uses the sum of the populations of the contiguous urban core and the surrounding commuting zone as its definition. According to the Oxford English Reference Dictionary definition of 'the most important town'  and many other authorities. Weather Underground weather and elevation at Bloomsbury " online.
The Weather Underground, Inc. Retrieved 22 August Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 26 June Retrieved 23 September Retrieved 23 February Archived from the original on 22 March Essex, Kent, Surrey and Middlesex 50 years on". Is Bromley in London or Kent? Archived from the original on 14 July Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 24 January Retrieved 4 May Policy and Management in Local Authorities. Archived from the original on 22 September Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 2 March Retrieved 28 September Archived from the original on 28 November Retrieved 16 November Archived from the original on 25 November London School of Economics.
Archived from the original on 18 November Archived from the original on 3 June Retrieved 12 June Retrieved 5 September Retrieved 12 September Retrieved 27 August Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 3 June National Centre for Language.
Archived from the original on 19 May Retrieved 6 June Archived from the original on 26 July Retrieved 28 June Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 10 February Retrieved 29 June The Greater London Authority. Retrieved 27 January Retrieved 12 October Retrieved 26 November Retrieved 15 November Retrieved 1 June The New York Times.
The Occupy movement partly inspired by the Arab Spring ,   Iranian Green Movement , and the Spanish Indignados Movement, as well as the overall global wave of anti-austerity protests. In and , students across the University of California occupied campus buildings in protest against budget cuts, tuition hikes, and staff cutbacks that had resulted from the Great Recession of According to Dissent Magazine , "It was in the context of the California student movement that the slogan 'Occupy Everything, Demand Nothing' first emerged.
He wrote enthusiastically for Adbusters about the "revolutionary potential of [the students] struggle. The Spanish Indignados movement began in mid-May , with camps at Madrid and elsewhere. According to sociologist Manuel Castells , by the end of the month there were already hundreds of camps around Spain and across the world. One of the inspirations for the movement was the Democracy Village set up in , outside the British Parliament in London.
The protest received additional attention when the internet hacker group Anonymous encouraged its followers to take part in the protests, calling protesters to "flood lower Manhattan, set up tents, kitchens, peaceful barricades and Occupy Wall Street". The report was released just as concerns of the Occupy Wall Street movement were beginning to enter the national political debate. From to the top income earners in the U.
The Great Recession also caused a drop of During the early weeks, the movement was frequently criticized by the news media for having no clearly defined goals. Speaking on 7 October , Kalle Lasn of Adbusters said that, in the early stages, the lack of demands was the "mysterious part" that allowed the movement to grow. Wolf argued that they did have clear demands including a desire to end what they saw as the corrupting effect of money on politics.
Some commentators such as David Graeber and Judith Butler criticized the idea that the movement must have clearly defined demands; they argued that issuing demands is counterproductive for the Occupy movement, because doing so would legitimize the very power structures the movement seeks to challenge.
The reason for the delay in articulating a clear demand was given as the time it takes to reach a consensus with the sometimes slow processes of participatory democracy.
Activists have used web technologies and social media like IRC , Facebook , Twitter , and Meetup to coordinate events. Interactive live streams of events by independent journalists such as Tim Pool were used to augment Mainstream media coverage. The movement went further to attempt to promote its causes through multi-media and art, which has been gathered and archived by institutions such as the National Museum of American History and New York Historical Society.
The Community Environmental Legal Defense Fund released a model community bill of rights, promoting laws that strip corporations of their personhood rights and elevating the rights of citizens, for occupy organizers to adopt locally.
The group planned to occupy foreclosed homes, disrupt bank auctions, and block evictions. The movement has been described as having an "overriding commitment" to participatory democracy. Important decisions are often made at General assemblies ,  which can themselves be informed by the findings of multiple working groups.
Decisions are made using the consensus model of participatory democracy. This often features the use of hand signals to increase participation and operating with discussion facilitators rather than leaders — a system that can be traced in part to the Quaker movement several centuries ago, to participatory democracy in ancient Athens , and to the spokescouncils of the anti-globalization movement.
At the assemblies, working group proposals are made to meeting participants, who comment upon them using a process called a stack ; a queue of speakers that anyone can join. In New York City, Occupy Wall Street uses what is called a progressive stack , in which people from marginalized groups are sometimes allowed to speak before people from dominant groups, with facilitators , or stack-keepers, urging speakers to "step forward, or step back" based on which group they belong to, meaning that women and minorities get to go to the front of the line, while white males must often wait for a turn to speak.
The occupy movement began with a commitment to nonviolence. Gene Sharp whose work was reported to have influenced nonviolent struggle movements in Serbia and the Arab Spring.
If they think they will change the economic system by simply staying in a particular location, then they are likely to be very disappointed. Protest alone accomplishes very little. In late May , sociologist Manuel Castells congratulated Spanish occupiers for the fact that not a single violent incident had been reported after 11 days of camping all over Spain.
Maurice Isserman and Prof. In September, sympathetic coverage given to the movement by the media was substantially increased after the circulation of a video of pepper spray being used by a police commander against peaceful female protestors. But I don't support it with the kind of triumphal attitude I saw expressed.
The beginning of the Occupy Movement was reliant on the usage of social media accounts for the dispersal of information. These accounts were very useful and helped tremendously. The social media accounts eventually became hierarchical and failed their purpose. In addition, a study was published that followed how Occupy user interests changed in time from June 1, to August 31, Responses to the movement from celebrities were both in-person and online. Some find it controversial that rich celebrities made appearances at the Occupy Wall Street Movement, but Kanye West justified his appearance as helping give power back to the people.
Many hold [ who? On 17 September , 1, protesters gathered in downtown Manhattan walking up and down Wall Street.
About to people stayed overnight in Zucotti Park, two blocks north of Wall Street. By 19 September, seven people had been arrested. Most of the 80 arrests were for blocking traffic, though some were also charged with disorderly conduct and resisting arrest. Police officers also used a technique called kettling which involves using orange nets to isolate protesters into smaller groups. That police official, later identified as Deputy Inspector Anthony Bologna, was shown in other videos hitting a photographer with a burst of spray.
Public attention to the pepper-sprayings resulted in a spike of news media coverage, a pattern that was to be repeated in the coming weeks following confrontations with police. Clyde Haberman , writing in The New York Times , said that "If the Occupy Wall Street protesters ever choose to recognize a person who gave their cause its biggest boost, they may want to pay tribute to Anthony Bologna," calling the event "vital" for the still nascent movement.
The New York Times reported that more than arrests were made. Some said the police had tricked protesters, allowing them onto the bridge, and even escorting them partway across. Myerson, a media coordinator for Occupy Wall Street said, "The cops watched and did nothing, indeed, seemed to guide us onto the roadway. On 4 October, a group of protesters who were arrested on the bridge filed a lawsuit against the city, alleging that officers had violated their constitutional rights by luring them into a trap and then arresting them.
Although video evidence showed the police warning protesters by bullhorn,  after reviewing it, Judge Jed S. Rakoff sided with plaintiffs, saying, "a reasonable officer in the noisy environment defendants occupied would have known that a single bull horn could not reasonably communicate a message to demonstrators".
On 5 October , joined by union members, students, and the unemployed, the demonstration swelled to the largest yet with an estimated 15, marchers joining the protest. Smaller protests continued in cities and on college campuses across the country.
Thousands of union workers joined protesters marching through the Financial District. The march was mostly peaceful—until after nightfall, when scuffles erupted. About protesters tried to storm barricades blocking them from Wall Street and the Stock Exchange. Police responded with pepper spray and penned the protesters in with orange netting. Inspired by Occupy Wall Street, British protesters organized an occupation of the London Stock Exchange to bring attention to what they saw as unethical behavior on the part of banks.
One of the organizers of the protest said the protests were to be focused against "increasing social and economic injustice in this country. In Frankfurt, 5, people protested at the European Central Bank and in Zurich, Switzerland's financial hub, protesters carried banners reading "We won't bail you out yet again" and "We are the 99 percent. In Chicago there were arrests, about arrests in Arizona 53 in Tucson , 46 in Phoenix , and more than 70 in New York City, including at least 40 in Times Square.
During this confrontation, protester Scott Olsen, a former Marine and Iraq War veteran, suffered a skull fracture caused by a tear-gas projectile or smoke canister fired by police. Police estimated that about 3, demonstrators were gathered at the port and 4, had marched across the city; however, a member of the Occupy movement was quoted by the BBC as estimating as many as 30, may have taken part.
OTR has been to every major Occupy Event in support of all occupied cities, traveling over 31, miles and visiting 42 States and cities since inception. RV" has been decorated with stickers, posters, and event notices from around the Country representing a billboard for the Occupy movement. On 5 November, protesters held "Bank Transfer Day", marching on banks and other financial institutions to urge Americans to move their money from big corporate banks to smaller community credit unions.
It was reported that an estimated , people took their money out of major banks. For some of the other camps such as the one at St Pauls in London, no physical action was taken, but on 15 November authorities stepped up legal action to gain authorization for a forcible eviction. Financial Times editor Richard Lambert suggested that the shift to confrontational tactics by authorities would be more likely to spur on the movement rather than cause it to disband.
Gapper said that it may be advantageous that the camps were being closed down, as they were beginning to alienate even members of the public who were initially fully sympathetic with the movement. UC Davis pepper-spray incident   On 22 November, occupiers mic checked President Obama to draw his attention to the treatment they had received from the police, including thousands of arrests. Interviewing one of the informal leaders of the movement, Financial Times journalist Shannon Bond found that issues of concern included: On 22 December The Washington Post reported that some of the cities which had forcefully disbanded occupy camps were now facing legal challenges.
On 2 January , Occupy Nigeria began, sparked by Nigeria's President Goodluck Jonathan announcing the ending of fuel subsidies in the country. There was support from the global movement, but most of the activity took place in Nigeria itself, with a report from CSM saying strikes were effectively shutting down whole cities. On 16 January Jonathan responded by announcing he would bring prices back down by partially restoring the fuel subsidy.
While students have been involved with Occupy since its inception, early has seen increasing formal interaction between the Occupy movement and academia. In the US, universities including Columbia and Roosevelt have begun offering courses about the movement, in the case of Columbia the course includes field work where students join in with Occupy activities. In Great Britain, Occupy's outwork teams are planning school visits to give talks about the movement and related issues.
This came after "Occupy the Ports" protests which shut down multiple ports on the west coast of the United States on 12 December. Of the respondents who were aware of the movement, supporters of the movement outweighed those in opposition two to one. Protestors were soon cleared away by police, who made over 70 arrests. On the weekend of 15 and 16 September, members of the Occupy movement gathered in Union Square, with direct action training on the 15th and a celebration of the movement on the 16th.
On 17 September, the Occupy movement celebrated its first anniversary with several marches and general assemblies which were attended by thousands of protesters. The occupiers claim that sleep is human right and is essential for mental, physical and emotional health, citing that human beings need to spend nearly a third of their lives sleeping.
Prohibiting sleep by making it illegal for people to protect themselves and their belongings from the elements causes sleep deprivation ; it is inhumane, unconstitutional, and amounts to torture. The vigil was staffed around the clock until 23 July , when Mayor Charlie Hales ordered the removal of the vigil and associated encampments on the abutting sidewalks.
The Occupy movement has "already transformed beyond recognition from its original state" and "campaigns have emerged outside the constraint of the trademark Occupy tactics.
Sanders supporters were protesting CNN 's coverage of the United States presidential elections , specifically in regards to the amount of airtime Sanders has received. Known as Occupy CNN, protestors are claiming that major media networks have intentionally blacked out Sanders' presidential campaign in favor of giving much more airtime to candidates such as Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump.
In Switzerland, the Occupy spirit lives on by annual online and offline celebrations each year on 17 September  in the village of St. Imier where modern anarchism began with the International Congress of On 20 February  near Margaryan Maternity Clinic, where kiosks were being built by the city authorities. The place of protests was promptly dubbed "Mashtots park" — a name under which it is now widely known by the Armenian society now. The protesters faced police violence as with many other "Occupy" movements, a report was filed to the ombudsman of RA [ clarification needed ] on account of the destruction of a tent with a sleeping protester inside.
At the Occupy Melbourne protest on 21 October , approximately protesters defied police orders to clear the area, and were subsequently removed with force. Occupy Sydney had an ongoing occupation in Martin Place since their initial police eviction, marking almost 21 months in July The Occupy Sydney camp was removed on 3 July but it returned on 4 July. It was again removed on 5 July. In Brussels , a large Occupy demonstration took place on 15 October involving between 6, and 8, participants.
The protest was largely peaceful, although seven people were arrested following vandalisation of the Dexia bank headquarters and financial tower. About — people attended a speakers corner. The left-wing socialist party PVDA was present and served free soup as well as information about its proposed "millionaires' tax". To date, there have been four Occupy protests in Leuven.
Three took place on the Grand Market in the centre of the city and one took place at a building of the city's Catholic university. The number of protesters in these rallies varied from to These protests have not included prolonged camping, but the protesters say that it is a possibility in the future.
They received a visit by supporters attending the "second day of Socialism" de Tweede Dag van het Socialisme , also held in Ghent on the same day. The protests in Brazil also known as the V for Vinegar Movement, Salad Revolt, Vinegar Revolt, Come to the street and Brazilian Spring are ongoing public demonstrations in several Brazilian cities, initiated mainly by the Movimento Passe Livre Free Fare Movement , a local entity that advocates for free public transportation.
The most recent movement being "Ocupe Estelita"  in Recife, Pernambuco which is focused on the demolition of an historical part of the city to make way for high-priced housing and leisure facilities. Occupy protests have taken place in at least 20 Canadian cities since 15 October On that day, 5, people gathered in Vancouver to protest perceived social injustice, while stayed the night in front of the Vancouver Art Gallery.
This site, known also as "King's Beach" is symbolically significant as the birthplace of the British Empire, and the encampment is seen by some protesters to represent an occupation of colonialism vis-a-vis its birth site.
There are currently a number of court proceedings across Canada on whether or not the eviction of protestors and violence from police is an infringement of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Around student protestors began occupying universities across Colombia on 12 November On 19 November , protesters started the "No Borders Camp" Or "Occupy Buffer Zone", a permanent occupation of the United Nations controlled buffer zone in the centre of the capital, Nicosia, demanding an end to the decades-long division of the Island.
By June the occupation of the buffer zone was essentially over. On 15 October , 2, protesters showed up on the square in front of the city hall of Copenhagen, protesting in sympathy with OWS. Immediately after the demonstration an "Occupy Copenhagen" camp was established. The camp, internally nicknamed "Plaza One Love", lived through harsh climate conditions and a couple of eviction attempts for two months, until it was torn down by the Municipality of Copenhagen and Danish police, on 21 December.
The movement has shifted to a mobile camp tactic, and still holds GA every Wednesday and other activities throughout the week. According to French protestors, relations with the police have varied considerably. Some police joined them for coffee and friendly discussion, but otherwise were hostile and confiscated blankets and food, leaving protesters sleeping in the cold outdoors without protection.
On 11 November, following a call made on social networks, some additional people joined the occupation. On 31 March , students and young workers began occupying public spaces in France in opposition to the neoliberal labor reforms in a protest movement known as Nuit debout.
As of 8 April, it has spread to dozens of cities in France as well as to Belgium, Germany, and Spain. Occupy Frankfurt subsequently took residence in front of the European Central Bank , and Occupy Berlin established a protest camp at St. On 13 August , the High Court ruled that the protesters must leave the occupied area.
On 11 September , the protesters were evicted from the plaza by court bailiffs , ending one of the world's longest continuously occupied Occupy protest camps.
On 15 October , about , people  gathered in Rome to protest against economic inequality and the influence of the European Commission , the European Central Bank and the International Monetary Fund on government.
The name of this Rome's group, related to international Occupy movement, is Accampata Roma. The Occupy Dataran movement first held their assembly at Dataran Merdeka Independence Square seven weeks before Occupy Wall Street on 30 July  to create an alternative to the current representative democracy  using the popular assembly model based on principles of participatory democracy.
Edur Velasco, a year-old labor economist and university professor, was on a day-long hunger strike sitting in a tent outside Mexico City's stock market, demanding that the government guarantee greater access to higher education among the youth. Police remained discreetly around the corner sitting in their trucks.
Occupy Mexico did not achieve the level of popularity it gained in other areas. This is attributed to the fact that Mexico's Occupy protesters, which were focused on poverty and workers' rights, failed to resonate with a public enthralled by the violence of the Mexican Drug War. Ganbaatar, the head of Mongolia's Confederation of Trade Unions CTU , has announced that the association joins the worldwide occupy protests of Wall Street and other high streets on 20 October Also known as Baluwatar Satyagraha, Occupy Baluwatar is a peaceful protest movement calling on the Nepali state to better address the widespread problem of impunity and gender-based violence.
The protesters created a coherent set of demands, divided into short- and long-term goals, which they presented to then prime minister Baburam Bhattarai.
The long-term demands focused on policy reform in the arenas of migration and rape laws, among others. In the Netherlands, Occupy protests took place in many cities, most notably Amsterdam ,  The Hague ,  Rotterdam ,  and Utrecht .
Two arrests were made and police said campers were in breach of council bylaws regarding camping. Occupy Nigeria is an anti-fuel subsidy removal protest that started in Nigeria on 2 January in response to fuel subsidy removal by the Federal government of Nigeria on 1 January The movement ended on 16 January following agreement between the government and the organized labour leaders which saw a partial restoration of the subsidy regime.
Fuel pump price in Nigeria has since then been fixed at the official rate of 97 naira per litre while it practically sells for as high as naira in some major cities including Port Harcourt, one of the cities in the oil-producing states in Nigeria.
On 22 October it was reported that over 2, people took part in a demonstration organized by Occupy Dame Street. On the morning of 16 May at approximately 4: The camp was removed because the group was illegally occupying a public amenity. At the time the camp was dismantled, there were only 6 protesters at the camp. The camp had lasted for days. It consists of a loose informal affiliation of on-the-ground groups and individuals across South Africa as well as internet based groups.
During the Fees Must Fall movement, protest groups also adopted the slogan Occupy4FreeEducation in response to the government's perceived lack of interest in dealing with the issue.
Hundreds of protesters held rallies in the South Korean capital of Seoul on 15 and 22 October in under the slogan of "Occupy Seoul". Protesters focused on issues such as a recent free trade agreement with the United States as well as costs of tuition and rent. Protesters gathered in several places in Seoul, including Yeouido financial hub of Seoul where protesters rallied under the slogan of "Occupy Yeouido: Other protesters, led by leftist organizations such as People's Solidarity for Participatory Democracy , gathered in front of Seoul train station and Daehanmoon.
However, they failed to enter the Seoul City Hall Plaza as they had planned, as their protest permit was rejected by the police due to an exhibition that was already taking place in the Plaza. Although there were considerable support from public, there were also criticisms regarding the nature of the protest.
Unlike the original Occupy movement which started out as the anti-capitalist protest, many of the catchphrases of Occupy Seoul contained anti-government or anti-American messages. One of the observers has argued that "South Korea overcame the financial crisis relatively well and there was no serious crisis in financial sector. It is hard to find the legitimate basis of the protest. A series of protests demands a radical change in Spanish politics , as protesters do not consider themselves to be represented by any traditional party nor favoured by the measures approved by politicians.
The protesters occupied the legislature for 24 days before vacating peacefully. The initial protests in Istanbul on 28 May were led by about 50 environmentalists  against replacing Taksim Gezi Park with a reconstruction of the Ottoman Era Taksim Military Barracks the scene of pro Sultan riots in The current protests developed into riots after the heavy handed police intervention which featured significant use of tear gas and water cannons.
What started as an environmentalist protest against plans to replace Taksim Gezi Park developed into wider anti-government demonstrations. Demands issued on 4 June included. As part of the 15 October global protests , protesters gathered in London, Bristol, and Birmingham in England, together with Glasgow and Edinburgh in Scotland See Scotland heading below. Paul's, Reverend Giles Fraser , said he was happy for people to "exercise their right to protest peacefully" outside the cathedral and an indefinite encampment was established.
On 29 October a camp was also established in Victoria Gardens, Brighton , and grew from six tents to around twenty within one week. On 15 November, an Occupy camp was established in the centre of Leicester near the Highcross shopping centre.
The camp was part of a campaign for greater transparency in democracy as well as an end to lobbying. Any items that could be used for sleeping have been deemed illegal under the Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act , created after the original occupation.
The eviction was live streamed, showing police dragging protesters away. Fifty to a hundred protesters remained in the park overnight. Occupy camps were established in the financial district of St.
Andrew Square, Edinburgh on 15 October Edinburgh City Council subsequently officially backed Occupy Edinburgh and the Occupy movement worldwide. Protesters from Occupy Glasgow set up in the civic George Square on 15 October but after the council obtained a court order moved to Kelvingrove Park , where the council agreed to provide running water, toilets and safety fences.
In Wales, Occupy Cardiff originally set its camp-site outside Cardiff Castle but it was disbanded by police, and some protesters were arrested. Charges were later dropped following calls from trade unionists, lawyers and politicians including Plaid Cymru leader Leanne Wood , Labour Party politician Tony Benn and demonstrations outside Cardiff magistrates court. The original location of choice by the protesters was 1 Chase Plaza, the site of the "Charging Bull" statue, but when police discovered the planned site, it was fenced off and nearby Zuccotti Park was chosen.
There was scant media coverage till 24 September when a large march forcing the closure of several streets resulted in 80 arrests.
Police used a technique called "netting", the use of orange plastic nets to corral protesters, and the march received extensive media coverage when a video of several "netted" young women being pepper sprayed was widely circulated. Media coverage was again sparked on 1 October, when New York City protesters attempted to march across the Brooklyn Bridge and more than arrests were made.
Some said the police had tricked protesters, allowing them onto the bridge and even escorting them partway across before they began to make mass arrests. On 25 October, police officers cleared two Occupy Oakland protest camp sites.
Police fired tear gas canisters at the protestors, allegedly in response to objects being thrown at them. Scott Olsen, a former Marine and Iraq War veteran, suffered a skull fracture caused by a projectile that witnesses believed was a tear gas or smoke canister fired by the police.
Police estimated that about 3, demonstrators were gathered at the port and 4, had marched across the city. Many journalists complained that the police had made a deliberate decision to keep journalists away from the park during the raid. Such reporting is vital to democracy, and authorities at every level of government — federal, state and local — must honour their constitutional obligation not to infringe upon the freedom of the press.
On 6 December, Occupy Homes , an offshoot of Occupy Wall Street, embarked on a "national day of action" to protest the mistreatment of homeowners by big banks, who they say made billions of dollars off the housing bubble by offering predatory loans and indulging in practices that allegedly took advantage of consumers.
In more than two dozen cities across the nation the movement took on the housing crisis by re-occupying foreclosed homes, disrupting bank auctions and blocking evictions. Foreign Affairs has had various articles covering the movement. Egyptian protesters from Tahrir Square have lent their support of the movement. A message of solidarity issued by a collective of Cairo-based protesters declared: An entire generation across the globe has grown up realizing, rationally and emotionally, that we have no future in the current order of things.
Over twice as many reported a favourable response to the movement compared to those who dislike it. In the United States, the protests have helped shift the focus of national dialogue from the federal budget deficit to economic problems many ordinary Americans face, such as unemployment,  the large amount of student and other personal debt that burdens middle class and working class Americans,  and other major issues of social inequality, such as homelessness. Occupy movement raised awareness regarding what organizers consider undeserved wealth and lack of fairness in American society.
Offshoots of the Occupy movement, such as Rolling Jubilee , a project of Strike Debt, have bought millions in "zombie debt," money that individuals owe that they have no financial means to pay, including medical debt, to free the debtors from the obligation to pay it off. On 10 November , The Daily Telegraph reported that the word "occupy" had been the "most commonly used English word on the internet and in print" over the past 12 months according to a top ten list published by media analysis company Global Language Monitor.
On 27 December , the Financial Times argued that the movement had had a global impact, altering "the terms of the political debate. FEC recognizing corporate constitutionally protected free speech rights and would ban corporate money from the electoral process.
In March , former U. Vice President Al Gore called on activists to "occupy democracy", explaining that "Our democracy has been hacked. It no longer works to serve the best interests of the people of this country. Inequality has remained a central theme of President Obama's reelection campaign, yet he no longer mentions the Occupy movement by name, which analysts say reflects the fact that by early Occupy had become a divisive issue, unpopular with some of the public.
Three years later, income inequality had become a major part of the political discourse and The Atlantic Magazine declared "The Triumph of Occupy Wall Street" . Government documents released in December pursuant to Freedom of Information Act requests by the Partnership for Civil Justice Fund reveal FBI monitoring of what became known as the Occupy movement since at least August , a month before the protests began.
Department of Homeland Security , local police, regional law enforcement "counterterrorism" fusion centers , and private security forces of major banks formed the Domestic Security Alliance Council DSAC to collect and share information about, and to share plans to target and to arrest Occupy protesters.
Banks met with the FBI to pool information about participants of the Occupy movement collected by corporate security, and the FBI offered to bank officials its plans to prevent Occupy events that were scheduled for a month later. Following actions by police and municipal officials to use force in closing various Occupy tent camps in public spaces, lawsuits have been filed, while others are being planned.
In , MIT doctoral student Ryan Shapiro , collecting research on the role of the FBI in the Occupy movement, sent the FBI three FOIA requests regarding "a potential plan to gather intelligence against the leaders of [Occupy Wall Street-related protests in Houston ] and obtain photographs, then formulate a plan to kill the leadership [of the protests] via suppressed sniper rifles. By , there were no more Occupy events chasing the same original goals.
Instead, there were multiple reported protests that had similar methods to the Occupy movement, with different goals. Apart from the dismissals made by political conservatives, there have also been appreciative criticisms from more left-wing scholars. One such critique concerns itself with the way in which the Occupy movement has focused its demands around a narrowly modern understanding of freedom that differs little from the claims of mainstream liberal pluralism:.
International activists involved in the Occupy Movement have seen it stall due a lack of synergy to work with other alternative movements calling for change. The biggest criticism is that the movement is without depth, without a lasting vision of an alternative future. Remarks from Occupy Wall Street participant Justine Tunney , a Google software engineer, who called on President Obama to appoint Eric Schmidt "CEO of America", have also sparked criticism, including from the vast majority of other Occupy participants, many of whom have observed that her politics are inconsistent with horizontalism.
Many Occupy Wall Street protests have included anti-zionist and anti semitic slogans and signage such as "Jews control Wall Street" or "Zionist Jews who are running the big banks and the Federal Reserve". As a result, the Occupy Wall Street Movement has been consistently confronted with accusations of anti-Semitism.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Worldwide Occupy movement protests on 15 October Timeline of Occupy Wall Street. For a more comprehensive list, see List of Occupy movement protest locations and 15 October global protests.
Occupy Central with Love and Peace. Occupy protests in New Zealand. Taking Back South Africa! Occupy movement in the United Kingdom. Occupy Edinburgh and Occupy Glasgow.
Occupy movement in the United States. For a more comprehensive list, see List of Occupy movement protest locations in the United States. Reactions to the Occupy movement. Social movements portal Society portal Politics portal Business and economics portal. Retrieved 3 January Retrieved 16 October City protest; police say death not suspicious". Retrieved 1 November Archived from the original on 6 November
: Brazilian escorts chronicle classifieds Perth
|Escorts nearby escort and babes Perth||Civil War and Revolution". Supreme Criminal Tribunal Malaysia: Fromthe original Wembley Stadium was the home of the English national football team. Retrieved 27 August At its height in the 2nd century, Roman London had a population of around 60, Ina congestion charge was introduced to reduce traffic volumes in the city centre.|
|Brazilian escorts chronicle classifieds Perth||Jorge Rafael Videla Cambodia: The Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race. Archived from the original on 27 March Other significant instruments are at the cathedrals and major churches. Retrieved 23 January|
|Back page personals brothels near airport Perth||390|